Original Article
Copyright ©2012 Baishideng Publishing Group Co., Limited. All rights reserved.
World J Gastroenterol. Oct 14, 2012; 18(38): 5351-5359
Published online Oct 14, 2012. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i38.5351
Anti-inflammatory effects of Lacto-Wolfberry in a mouse model of experimental colitis
David Philippe, Viral Brahmbhatt, Francis Foata, Yen Saudan, Patrick Serrant, Stephanie Blum, Jalil Benyacoub, Karine Vidal
David Philippe, Viral Brahmbhatt, Francis Foata, Yen Saudan, Patrick Serrant, Stephanie Blum, Jalil Benyacoub, Karine Vidal, Department of Nutrition and Health, Nestlé Research Center, CH-1000 Lausanne, Switzerland
Author contributions: Philippe D, Blum S, Benyacoub J and Vidal K designed the experiments; Philippe D, Foata F, Saudan Y and Serrant P performed the research; Philippe D, Brahmbhatt V, Benyacoub J and Vidal K analyzed the data and wrote the manuscript; all authors approved the final manuscript.
Correspondence to: Viral Brahmbhatt, MBBS, PhD, R and D Specialist, Department of Nutrition and Health, Nestlé Research Centre, Vers-chez-les-Blanc 26, PO Box 44, CH-1000 Lausanne, Switzerland. viralvishnuprasad.brahmbhatt@rdls.nestle.com
Telephone: +41-21-7858265 Fax: +41-21-7858544
Received: March 21, 2012
Revised: July 10, 2012
Accepted: July 18, 2012
Published online: October 14, 2012

AIM: To investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of Lacto-Wolfberry (LWB), both in vitro and using a mouse model of experimental colitis.

METHODS: The effects of LWB on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and interleukin (IL)-6 secretion were assessed in a murine macrophage cell line. in vitro assessment also included characterizing the effects of LWB on the activation of NF-E2 related 2 pathway and inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, utilizing reporter cell lines. Following the in vitro assessment, the anti-inflammatory efficacy of an oral intervention with LWB was tested in vivo using a preclinical model of intestinal inflammation. Multiple outcomes including body weight, intestinal histology, colonic cytokine levels and anti-oxidative measures were investigated.

RESULTS: LWB reduced the LPS-mediated induction of ROS production [+LPS vs 1% LWB + LPS, 1590 ± 188.5 relative luminescence units (RLU) vs 389 ± 5.9 RLU, P < 0.001]. LWB was more effective than wolfberry alone in reducing LPS-induced IL-6 secretion in vitro (wolfberry vs 0.5% LWB, 15% ± 7.8% vs 64% ± 5%, P < 0.001). In addition, LWB increased reporter gene expression via the anti-oxidant response element activation (wolfberry vs LWB, 73% ± 6.9% vs 148% ± 28.3%, P < 0.001) and inhibited the TNF-α-induced activation of the NF-κB pathway (milk vs LWB, 10% ± 6.7% vs 35% ± 3.3%, P < 0.05). Furthermore, oral supplementation with LWB resulted in a reduction of macroscopic (-LWB vs +LWB, 5.39 ± 0.61 vs 3.66 ± 0.59, P = 0.0445) and histological scores (-LWB vs +LWB, 5.44 ± 0.32 vs 3.66 ± 0.59, P = 0.0087) in colitic mice. These effects were associated with a significant decrease in levels of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β (-LWB vs +LWB, 570 ± 245 μg/L vs 89 ± 38 μg/L, P = 0.0106), keratinocyte-derived chemokine/growth regulated protein-α (-LWB vs +LWB, 184 ± 49 μg/L vs 75 ± 20 μg/L, P = 0.0244), IL-6 (-LWB vs +LWB, 318 ± 99 μg/L vs 117 ± 18 μg/L, P = 0.0315) and other pro-inflammatory proteins such as cyclooxygenase-2 (-LWB vs +LWB, 0.95 ± 0.12 AU vs 0.36 ± 0.11 AU, P = 0.0036) and phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription-3 (-LWB vs +LWB, 0.51 ± 0.15 AU vs 0.1 ± 0.04 AU, P = 0.057). Moreover, antioxidant biomarkers, including expression of gene encoding for the glutathione peroxidase, in the colon and the plasma anti-oxidant capacity were significantly increased by supplementation with LWB (-LWB vs +LWB, 1.2 ± 0.21 mmol/L vs 2.1 ± 0.19 mmol/L, P = 0.0095).

CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate the anti-inflammatory properties of LWB and suggest that the underlying mechanism is at least in part due to NF-κB inhibition and improved anti-oxidative capacity.

Keywords: Lacto-Wolfberry, Colitis, Nutrition, Inflammation, Wolfberry, Inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease