Published online Aug 21, 2012. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i31.4095
Revised: March 26, 2012
Accepted: April 9, 2012
Published online: August 21, 2012
Celiac disease (CD) is an autoimmune inflammatory disease of the small intestine as a result of reaction to wheat protein, gluten. Exclusion of dietary gluten is the mainstay of the treatment that necessitates a precise diagnosis of the disease. Serological screening may aid in identifying patients with suspected CD, which should be confirmed by intestinal biopsy. It has been shown that duodenal biopsies are good for detection of the disease in most patients. However, there is a group of patients with positive serology and inconclusive pathology. As a result of the widespread use of serology, many patients with equivocal findings grow quickly. Unfortunately current endoscopic methods can only diagnose villous atrophy, which can be present in the later grades of disease (i.e., Marsh III). To diagnose CD correctly, going deeper in the intestine may be necessary. Enteroscopy can reveal changes in CD in the intestinal mucosa in 10%-17% of cases that have negative histology at initial workup. Invasiveness of the method limits its use. Capsule endoscopy may be a good substitute for enteroscopy. However, both techniques should be reserved for patients with suspected diagnosis of complications. This paper reviews the current literature in terms of the value of enteroscopy for diagnosis of CD.