Published online Jul 7, 2012. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v18.i25.3201
Revised: March 2, 2012
Accepted: March 9, 2012
Published online: July 7, 2012
Gastric stump carcinoma (GSC) following remote gastric surgery is widely recognized as a separate entity within the group of various types of gastric cancer. Gastrectomy is a well established risk factor for the development of GSC at a long time after the initial surgery. Both exo- as well as endogenous factors appear to be involved in the etiopathogenesis of GSC, such as achlorhydria, hypergastrinemia and biliary reflux, Epstein-Barr virus and Helicobacter pylori infection, atrophic gastritis, and also some polymorphisms in interleukin-1β and maybe cyclo-oxygenase-2. This review summarizes the literature of GSC, with special reference to reliable early diagnostics. In particular, dysplasia can be considered as a dependable morphological marker. Therefore, close endoscopic surveillance with multiple biopsies of the gastroenterostomy is recommended. Screening starting at 15 years after the initial ulcer surgery can detect tumors at a curable stage. This approach can be of special interest in Eastern European countries, where surgery for benign gastroduodenal ulcers has remained a practice for a much longer time than in Western Europe, and therefore GSC is found with higher frequency.