Published online Dec 7, 2011. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v17.i45.5014
Revised: May 6, 2011
Accepted: May 13, 2011
Published online: December 7, 2011
AIM: To discuss the safety, feasibility and regularity of destruction to porcine spleen in vivo with congestion and tumescence by microwave ablation (MWA).
METHODS: Ligation of the splenic vein was used to induce congestion and tumescence in vivo in five porcine spleens, and microwave ablation was performed 2-4 h later. A total of 56 ablation points were ablated and the ablation powers were 30-100 W. The ablation time (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9 and 10 min) was performed at a power of 60 W. After ablation, the ablation size was measured in pigs A, C, D and E and spleen resection. In pig B, the ablation size was measured and 2 ablation points were sent for pathology analysis and all tissues were sutured following ablation. Pig B was killed 1 wk later and the ablation points were sent for pathology analysis. Bleeding, tissue carbonization surrounding electrodes, and pathological changes were observed, and the effect on destruction volume relative to different ablation powers, times and positions was analyzed.
RESULTS: The incidence of bleeding (only small am-ounts, < 20 mL) in the course of ablation was 5.4% (3/56) and was attributed to tissue carbonization surrounding electrodes, which also exhibited an incidence of 5.4% (3/56). The destruction volume was influenced by different ablation powers, times and points. It showed that the ablation lesion size increased with increased ablation time, from 1 to 10 min, when the ablation power was 60 W. Also, the ablation lesion size increased with the increase of ablation power, ranging from 30 to 100 W when the ablation time was set to 3 min. A direct correlation was seen between the destruction volume and ablation time by the power of 60 W (r = 0.97542, P < 0.0001, and also between the destruction volume and ablation powers at an ablation time of 3 min (r = 0.98258, P < 0.0001). The destruction volume of zone II (the extra-2/3 part of the spleen, relative to the first or second class vascular branches), which was near the hilum of the spleen, was noteably larger than the destruction volume of zoneI(the intra-1/3 part of the spleen) which was distal from the hilum of the spleen (P = 0.0015). Pathological changes of ablation occurring immediately and 1 wk after MWA showed large areas of coagulation. Immediately following ablation, intact spleen tissues were observed in the areas of coagulation necrosis, mainly around arterioles, and there were no obvious signs of hydropsia and inflammation, while 1 wk following the ablation, the coagulation necrosis was well distributed and complete, as many nuclear fragmentations were detected, and there were obvious signs of hydropsia and inflammation.
CONCLUSION: In vivo treatment of congestion and tumescence in the spleen using microwave ablation of water-cooled antenna is a safe and feasible method that is minimally invasive.