Published online Oct 21, 2010. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v16.i39.4968
Revised: January 25, 2010
Accepted: February 1, 2010
Published online: October 21, 2010
AIM: To study the management and outcome of children with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction (EHPVO) in a whole country population.
METHODS: A nationwide multicenter retrospective case series of children with EHPVO was conducted. Data on demographics, radiographic studies, laboratory workup, endoscopic and surgical procedures, growth and development, were extracted from the patients’ charts. Characteristics of clinical presentation, etiology of EHPVO, management and outcome were analyzed.
RESULTS: Thirty patients, 13 males and 17 females, 19 (63.3%) Israeli and 11 (36.7%) Palestinians, were included in the analysis. Age at presentation was 4.8 ± 4.6 years, and mean follow-up was 4.9 ± 4.3 years. Associated anomalies were found in 4 patients. The incidence of EHPVO in Israeli children aged 0-14 years was 0.72/million. Risk factors for EHPVO were detected in 13 (43.3%) patients, including 9 patients (30%) with perinatal risk factors, and 4 patients (13.3%) with prothrombotic states: two had low levels of protein S and C, one had lupus anticoagulant, and one was homozygous for methyltetrahydrofolate reductase mutations. In 56.6% of patients, no predisposing factors were found. The most common presenting symptoms were an incidental finding of splenomegaly (43.3%), and upper gastrointestinal bleeding (40%). No differences were found between Israeli and Palestinian children with regard to age at presentation, etiology and clinical symptoms. Bleeding occurred in 18 patients (60%), at a median age of 3 years. Sclerotherapy or esophageal banding was performed in 20 patients. No sclerotherapy complications were reported. Portosystemic shunts were performed in 11 patients (36.6%), at a median age of 11 (range 3-17) years: splenorenal in 9, mesocaval in 1, and a meso-Rex shunt in 1 patient. One patient underwent splenectomy due to severe pancytopenia. Patients were followed up for a median of 3 (range 0.5-15) years. One patient died aged 3 years due to mucopolysaccharidase deficiency type III. None of the patients died due to gastrointestinal bleeding.
CONCLUSION: EHPVO is a rare disorder. The etiological factors are still mostly unknown, and the endoscopic and surgical treatment options ensure a good long-term prognosis.