Published online Jul 7, 2010. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v16.i25.3103
Revised: April 7, 2010
Accepted: April 14, 2010
Published online: July 7, 2010
Nowadays, the number of cases in which malignant colorectal polyps are removed is increasing due to colorectal cancer screening programmes. Cancerous polyps are classified into non-invasive high grade neoplasia (NHGN), when the cancer has not reached the muscularis mucosa, and malignant polyps, classed as T1, when they have invaded the submucosa. NHGN is considered cured with polypectomy, while the prognosis for malignant polyps depends on various morphological and histological factors. The prognostic factors include, sessile or pedunculated morphology of the polyp, whether partial or en bloc resection is carried out, the degree of differentiation of the carcinoma, vascular or lymphatic involvement, and whether the polypectomy resection margin is tumor free. A malignant polyp at T1 is considered cured with polypectomy if it is a pedunculated polyp (Ip of the Paris classification), it has been completely resected, it is not poorly differentiated, the resection edge is not affected by the tumor and there is no vascular or lymphatic involvement. The sessile malignant polyp (Is of the Paris classification) at T1 is considered not cured with polypectomy. Only in some cases (e.g. older people with high surgical risk) local excision (polypectomy or endoscopic submucosal dissection or conventional endoscopic mucosal resection) is considered the definitive treatment.