Original Article
Copyright ©2010 Baishideng. All rights reserved.
World J Gastroenterol. May 21, 2010; 16(19): 2378-2387
Published online May 21, 2010. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v16.i19.2378
Chronic niacin overload may be involved in the increased prevalence of obesity in US children
Da Li, Wu-Ping Sun, Yi-Ming Zhou, Qi-Gui Liu, Shi-Sheng Zhou, Ning Luo, Fu-Ning Bian, Zhi-Gang Zhao, Ming Guo
Da Li, Wu-Ping Sun, Shi-Sheng Zhou, Ning Luo, Fu-Ning Bian, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Medical College, Dalian University, Dalian 116622, Liaoning Province, China
Yi-Ming Zhou, Okazaki Institute for Integrative Bioscience, National Institutes of Natural Sciences, Okazaki 8787, Japan
Qi-Gui Liu, Department of Health Statistics, Dalian Medical University, Dalian 116044, Liaoning Province, China
Zhi-Gang Zhao, Department of Nuclear Medicine, PLA No. 210 Hospital, Dalian 116021, Liaoning Province, China
Ming Guo, College of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Dalian University, Dalian 116622, Liaoning Province, China
Author contributions: Zhou SS was responsible for the study concept, design, direction and supervision, formulated the hypothesis, drafted the manuscript, and obtained funding; Sun WP and Zhou YM contributed equally to this work; Li D, Sun WP, Zhou YM, Luo N, Bian FN and Zhao ZG contributed to the data acquisition and analysis/discussion; Liu QG participated in the design of the study and performed the statistical analysis; Guo M participated in the HPLC experiments.
Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China, No. 30570665; the Foundation of Dalian Technology Bureau, No. 2008E13SF182; and the Foundation of Key Laboratory of Education Department of Liaoning Province, No. 2009S005
Correspondence to: Shi-Sheng Zhou, PhD, MD, Institute of Basic Medical Sciences, Medical College, Dalian University, Dalian 116622, Liaoning Province, China. zhouss@ymail.com
Telephone: +86-411-87402740 Fax: +86-411-87402053
Received: December 30, 2009
Revised: March 14, 2010
Accepted: March 21, 2010
Published online: May 21, 2010

AIM: To investigate nicotinamide’s action on glucose metabolism, and the association between niacin consumption and obesity prevalence.

METHODS: Dynamic nicotinamide’s effect on plasma hydrogen peroxide and glucose metabolism was investigated using oral glucose tolerance tests with or without nicotinamide in the same five healthy subjects. Lag-regression analysis was used to examine the association between the niacin consumption and the obesity prevalence among US children using the data from the Economic Research Service of the US Department of Agriculture and from US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, respectively.

RESULTS: Compared with the control oral glucose tolerance test, the 1-h plasma hydrogen peroxide (1.4 ± 0.1 μmol/L vs 1.6 ± 0.1 μmol/L, P = 0.016) and insulin levels (247.1 ± 129.0 pmol/L vs 452.6 ± 181.8 pmol/L, P = 0.028) were significantly higher, and the 3-h blood glucose was significantly lower (5.8 ± 1.2 mmol/L vs 4.5 ± 1.1 mmol/L, P = 0.002) after co-administration of glucose and 300 mg nicotinamide. The obesity prevalence among American children increased with the increasing per capita niacin consumption, the increasing grain contribution to niacin due to niacin-fortification, and the increasing niacin-fortified ready-to-eat cereal consumption, with a 10-year lag. The regression analyses showed that the obesity prevalence in the US children of all age groups was determined by niacin consumption (R2 = 0.814, 0.961 and 0.94 for 2-5 years, 6-11 years and 12-19 years age groups, respectively).

CONCLUSION: The appetite-stimulating effect of nicotinamide appears to involve oxidative stress. Excess niacin consumption may be a major factor in the increased obesity prevalence in US children.

Keywords: Obesity, Diabetes, Niacin, Nicotinamide