Published online Nov 21, 2009. doi: 10.3748/wjg.15.5472
Revised: September 10, 2009
Accepted: September 17, 2009
Published online: November 21, 2009
AIM: To elucidate etiologic associations between Helicobacter pylori (H pylori), lifestyle, environmental factors and gastric cardiac adenocarcinoma (GCA) among men.
METHODS: A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in Taiwan from 2000 to 2009. All cases were newly confirmed as primary GCA. Five controls were selected matching with age, sex, and admission date to each case. Participants were informed of potential risk factors with a structured questionnaire by trained interviewers during hospitalization and provided a blood sample for the determination of H pylori infection. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI) were used to evaluate risk, and a multivariate conditional logistic regression model was performed.
RESULTS: All participants recruited for this study were men, consisting of 41 cases and 205 controls. Results of the univariate analysis showed that significant factors associated with the etiology of GCA included H pylori (OR = 2.69, 95% CI = 1.30-5.53), cigarette smoking (OR = 2.28, 95% CI = 1.05-4.96), working or exercising after meals (OR = 3.26, 95% CI = 1.31-8.11), salted food (OR = 2.51, 95%CI = 1.08-6.11), fresh vegetables (OR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.09-0.80), fruits (OR = 0.19, 95% CI = 0.04-0.89), and rice as principal food (OR = 0.53, 95% CI = 0.30-0.85). Multivariate conditional logistic regression models indicated that a significantly elevated risk of contracting GCA was associated with working or exercising after meals (OR = 3.18, 95% CI = 1.23-9.36) and H pylori infection (OR = 2.93, 95% CI = 1.42-6.01). In contrast, the consumption of fresh vegetables (OR = 0.22, 95% CI = 0.06-0.83), fruits (OR = 0.28, 95% CI = 0.09-0.79) and rice as principal food (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.24-0.93) remained as significant beneficial factor associated with GCA.
CONCLUSION: Working or exercising after meals and H pylori infection increase the risk of GCA, but higher intakes of rice, fresh vegetables and fruits reduce the risk.