Published online Aug 28, 2006. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v12.i32.5148
Revised: April 20, 2006
Accepted: April 24, 2006
Published online: August 28, 2006
AIM: To assess the feasibility of using BRAF, K-ras and BAT26 genes as stool-based molecular markers for detection of colorectal adenomas and hyperplastic polyps (HPs).
METHODS: We applied PCR-SSCP and direct sequencing to detect BRAF mutations of polyps and paired stool samples. Primer-mediated restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and mutant-enriched PCR were used in detection of K-ras mutations of polyp tissues and paired stool samples respectively. BAT26, a microsatellite instability marker was examined by detection of small unstable alleles in a poly (A) repeat.
RESULTS: No genetic alterations were detected in the 36 colonoscopically normal patients in either tissues or stools. BRAF, K-ras and BAT26 mutations were found in 4 (16%), 10 (40%) and 3 (12%) of 25 adenoma tissues and among them, 75%, 80% and 100% of patients were observed to contain the same mutations in their corresponding stool samples. In HPs, mutations of BRAF and K-ras were detected in the tumor DNA of 2 (11.1%) and 8 (33.3%) of 18 patients respectively, all of whom had identical alterations in their stools. Taken together, the three genetic markers detected 15 (60%) of 25 adenomas and 8 (44.4%) of 18 HPs. The sensitivity of stool detection was 80% for adenomas and 100% for HPs with an overall specificity of 92% for adenomas and 100% for HPs.
CONCLUSION: BRAF, K-ras and BAT26 genes have the potential to be molecular markers for colorectal adenomas and HPs, and can be used as non-invasive screening markers for colorectal polyps.