Published online Dec 7, 2005. doi: 10.3748/wjg.v11.i45.7159
Revised: May 10, 2005
Accepted: May 12, 2005
Published online: December 7, 2005
AIM: To explore the association of serum insulin, insulin resistance, and β-cell dysfunction with gallstone disease (GSD) in type 2 diabetics.
METHODS: We used a community-based study conducted between 1991 and 1993 in Kinmen, Taiwan to identify type 2 diabetics. A screening program for GSD was performed in 2001 by a panel of specialists who employed real-time ultrasound sonography to examine the abdominal region after the patient had fasted for at least 8 h. Screening was conducted in 2001 on 848 patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. The HOMA method was used to compare the profile differences for insulin resistance (HOMA IR) and β-cell dysfunction (HOMA β-cell).
RESULTS: We studied 440 type 2 diabetics who attended sonography check-ups. After excluding eight insulin-treated diabetics, the prevalence of GSD among the remaining 432 was 13.9% (26/187) among males and 14.7% (36/245) among females. After adjustment for other GSD-associated risk factors in addition to age and obesity, GSD risk increased among females with levels of serum insulin [4thvs 1st quartile odds ratios (OR) = 4.46 (95%CI: 1.71-11.66)] and HOMA IR [4thvs 1st quartile OR = 4.46 (95%CI: 1.71-11.66)]. Better HOMA β-cell function was significantly related to decreased risk of GSD [4thvs 1st quartile OR = 0.16 (95%CI: 0.03-1.70)]. Among males, age and central obesity were the most significant risk factors for GSD. No association of GSD with serum insulin, HOMA IR, and HOMA β-cell was observed among males.
CONCLUSION: Serum insulin, insulin resistance, and β-cell dysfunction are risk factors for GSD in females, but not males with type 2 diabetes.