Published online Aug 28, 2021. doi: 10.35712/aig.v2.i4.94
Peer-review started: April 9, 2021
First decision: July 3, 2021
Revised: July 10, 2021
Accepted: August 27, 2021
Article in press: August 27, 2021
Published online: August 28, 2021
Core Tip: Virtual three-dimensional (3D)-reconstruction models from computed tomography/magnetic resonance imaging scans of the liver might be helpful for visualization during liver surgery. Augmented reality, mixed reality and 3D-navigation could transfer such 3D-image data directly into the operation theater. Augmented reality and mixed reality have been shown to be feasible for the use in open and in minimally invasive liver surgery. 3D-navigation facilitated targeting of intraparenchymal lesions. Randomized controlled trials regarding clinical data or oncological outcome are not available. Up to now there is no intraoperative application of artificial intelligence in liver surgery. The usability of all these sophisticated image guidance tools has still not reached the grade of immersion which would be necessary for a widespread use in the daily surgical routine.