Systematic review with meta-analysis of the epidemiological evidence in Europe, Israel, America and Australasia on smoking and COVID-19
Peter Nicholas Lee, Katharine Jane Coombs, Department of Statistics, P.N. Lee Statistics and Computing Ltd., Sutton SM2 5DA, United Kingdom
Janette S Hamling, Department of Statistics, RoeLee Statistics Ltd., Sutton SM2 5DA, Surrey, United Kingdom
Author contributions: Lee PN conceived the study, checked the data entry and analysis, and wrote the paper; Coombs KJ carried out the literature searches and assisted in finalizing the paper; Hamling JS checked the literature searches, carried out the data entry and analysis, and assisted in finalizing the paper.
Supported by British-American Tobacco (Investments) Ltd., No. 5700014230; Japan Tobacco International S.A., No. 4700562109; and Philip Morris Products S.A., No 5700131814.
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors have carried out consultancy work for many tobacco organizations.
PRISMA 2009 Checklist statement: The authors have read the PRISMA 2020 statement, and the manuscript was prepared and revised according to the PRISMA 2020 statement.
: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/Licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Corresponding author: Peter Nicholas Lee, MA, Director, Senior Statistician, Department of Statistics, P.N. Lee Statistics and Computing Ltd., 17 Cedar Road, Sutton SM2 5DA, United Kingdom. email@example.com
Received: April 3, 2021
Peer-review started: April 3, 2021
First decision: June 18, 2021
Revised: June 28, 2021
Accepted: August 23, 2021
Article in press: August 23, 2021
Published online: August 28, 2021