Copyright ©The Author(s) 2019. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Meta-Anal. Nov 28, 2019; 7(9): 428-435
Published online Nov 28, 2019. doi: 10.13105/wjma.v7.i9.428
Use of music during colonoscopy: An updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Ryan D Heath, Nasim Parsa, Michelle L Matteson-Kome, Victoria Buescher, Sami Samiullah, Douglas L Nguyen, Veysel Tahan, Yezaz A Ghouri, Srinivas R Puli, Matthew L Bechtold
Ryan D Heath, Nasim Parsa, Michelle L Matteson-Kome, Victoria Buescher, Sami Samiullah, Veysel Tahan, Yezaz A Ghouri, Matthew L Bechtold, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, MO 65212, United States
Douglas L Nguyen, Division of Gastroenterology, Heart of the Rockies Regional Medical Center, Colorado Springs, CO 80907, United States
Srinivas R Puli, Division of Gastroenterology, University of Illinois–Peoria, Peoria, IL 61604, United States
Author contributions: Heath RD and Parsa N contributed equally to this work; Heath RD, Bechtold ML, and Parsa N designed research; Heath RD, Parsa N, Matteson-Kome ML, Buescher V, and Bechtold ML performed research; Matteson-Kome ML, Nguyen DL, and Puli SR contributed new reagents/analytic tools; Tahan V, Ghouri YA, Samiullah S, and Bechtold ML analyzed data; and Heath RD, Parsa N, Nguyen DL, Tahan V, Ghouri YA, Puli SR, and Bechtold ML wrote the paper.
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors deny any conflict of interest.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Corresponding author: Matthew L Bechtold, AGAF, FACG, FACP, FASGE, MD, Professor, Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Department of Medicine, University Hospital and Clinics CE405, 5 Hospital Drive, Columbia, MO 65212, United States.
Telephone: +1-573-8821013 Fax: +1-573-8844595
Received: October 2, 2019
Peer-review started: October 2, 2019
First decision: October 23, 2019
Revised: October 26, 2019
Accepted: November 15, 2019
Article in press: November 15, 2019
Published online: November 28, 2019
Research background

Music during colonoscopy has been a controversy subject despite multiple randomized controlled trials and meta-analyses. Studies vary from music during colonoscopy helping reduce need for sedative medications and enhancing patient experience to offering little to no benefit. Given this variability, we conducted this meta-analysis to include all studies to-date and limiting them to only conscious sedation.

Research motivation

To determine if music is beneficial to patients undergoing colonoscopy. If beneficial, music would be a very low-cost intervention to improve patients’ experience and pain during a very stressful procedure.

Research objectives

The objectives of this research were to fully assess the effects of music during colonoscopy sedative medication doses (meperidine and midazolam), total procedure time, and patients’ pain scores, experience, and willingness to repeat the colonoscopy.

Research methods

A meta-analysis was performed by calculating pooled estimates of sedative medication doses (meperidine and midazolam), total procedure time, and patients’ pain scores, experience, and willingness to repeat the colonoscopy using odds ratio and mean difference using a random effects model.

Research results

This research showed that music during colonoscopy improved patient experience and procedure times while reducing patient pain.

Research conclusions

Music is a benefit to patients undergoing the stressful procedure of colonoscopy. Music during colonoscopy improves the patient experience while reducing pain. In addition, procedure times are improved with music playing during colonoscopy. Music is a low-cost intervention that shows significant benefit and should strongly be considered in endoscopy suites. In the future, more endoscopy suites should be equipped with music.

Research perspectives

This meta-analysis shows that music has a role in the endoscopy suite. Also, this meta-analysis demonstrates that with more studies, the results of any meta-analysis may be significantly altered as these results differ from some prior meta-analyses.