Published online Jun 30, 2019. doi: 10.13105/wjma.v7.i6.323
Peer-review started: April 8, 2019
First decision: June 4, 2019
Revised: June 11, 2019
Accepted: June 18, 2019
Article in press: June 18, 2019
Published online: June 30, 2019
An imbalance of the microorganisms could lead to many human diseases including dyslipi-demia, fatty liver, and obesity. Probiotic supplementation has been considered an alternative treatment.
Variety of probiotics has been available as ‘healthy’ products to consumers for many health purposes. These over-the-counter probiotics usually comprised of multiple probiotic strains with some health claims. Given limited evidence on the isolated effect of each probiotic strain, a systematic approach to synthesize current scientific evidence is essential.
This study was aimed to identify clinical trials on the use of single probiotics alone or in combi-nation with prebiotics for improving fatty liver, obesity, and dyslipidemia.
This systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted using a rigorous methodology and supported by the use of systematic review management software. Titles and abstracts of the primary studies listed in PubMed and Embase databases were screened by two assessors using standard sets of inclusion and exclusion criteria. Data from the included articles were extracted in order to synthesize the effect of single probiotics on specific outcome measures.
A total of 13 randomized controlled trials were included. Three probiotics were included: Lactobacillus (10 studies), Bifidobacterium (2 studies), and Pediococcus (1 study). Probiotics significantly reduced BMI, reduced total cholesterol, reduced low-density lipoprotein, and increased high-density lipoprotein, compared to placebo; high study heterogeneities were observed. Only Lactobacillus could decrease triglyceride level with low heterogeneity. No included studies reported fibrosis score, liver functions, or subcutaneous fat outcomes.
This systematic review emphasizes the effects of single genus non-food-based probiotics on decreasing BMI, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein as well as increasing high-density lipoprotein levels.
Evidence on single genus probiotics is still limited. Additional clinical trials are needed for each of the single probiotics before combining two or more probiotics could be investigated.