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World J Meta-Anal. Dec 28, 2020; 8(6): 435-446
Published online Dec 28, 2020. doi: 10.13105/wjma.v8.i6.435
COVID-19-associated stroke risk: Could nutrition and dietary patterns have a contributing role?
Melika Hajimohammadebrahim-Ketabforoush, Mohammad Reza Shahmohammadi, Alireza Zali, Zahra Vahdat Shariatpanahi
Melika Hajimohammadebrahim-Ketabforoush, Zahra Vahdat Shariatpanahi, Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 198161957, Iran
Mohammad Reza Shahmohammadi, Alireza Zali, Shohada Tajrish Comprehensive Neurosurgical Center of Excellence, Functional Neurosurgery Research Center, Shohada Tajrish Hospital, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran 193954741, Iran
Author contributions: Hajimohammadebrahim-Ketabforoush M and Vahdat Shariatpanahi Z conceptualized and designed the study and wrote the manuscript; Hajimohammadebrahim-Ketabforoush M, Zali A and Shahmohammadi MR collected the data; Hajimohammadebrahim-Ketabforoush M and Vahdat Shariatpanahi Z interpreted the data and provided professional comments; Zali A and Shahmohammadi MR critically revised the manuscript for intellectual content and data accuracy; Hajimohammadebrahim-Ketabforoush M and Vahdat Shariatpanahi Z take responsibility for the paper’s final content; All of the authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Conflict-of-interest statement: The authors each declare having no conflict of interest.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/Licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Corresponding author: Zahra Vahdat Shariatpanahi, MD, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Nutrition Sciences and Food Technology, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, 3, Baran, West Arghavan, Farahzadi Blvd., Shahrak Qods, Tehran 198161957, Iran. nutritiondata@yahoo.com
Received: November 23, 2020
Peer-review started: November 23, 2020
First decision: December 12, 2020
Revised: December 27, 2020
Accepted: December 28, 2020
Article in press: December 28, 2020
Published online: December 28, 2020
Abstract

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 has created a life-threatening world pandemic. Unfortunately, this disease can be worse in older patients or individuals with comorbidities, having dangerous consequences, including stroke. COVID-19–associated stroke widely increases the risk of death from COVID-19. In addition to the personal hygiene protocols and preventive policies, it has been proven that immune-compromised, oxidative, and pro-coagulant conditions make a person more susceptible to severe COVID-19 complications, such as stroke; one of the most effective and modifiable risk factors is poor nutritional status. Previous literature has shown that healthy dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet, some food groups, and specific micronutrients, reduce the risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. In this work, for the first time, we hypothesized that a healthy diet could also be a protective/preventive factor against COVID-19–associated stroke risk. In order to prove this hypothesis, it is required to study nutritional intake and dietary patterns in patients suffering from COVID-19–associated stroke. If this hypothesis is proven, the chronic supportive role of a healthy diet in critical situations will be highlighted once again.

Keywords: COVID-19, COVID-19–associated stroke, Nutrition, Dietary patterns, Food group, Inflammation

Core Tip: The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can be worse in older patients or individuals with comorbidities, having dangerous consequences, including stroke. COVID-19–associated stroke widely increases the risk of death from COVID-19. Previous literature has shown that healthy dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean diet, some food groups, and specific micronutrients, reduce the risk of ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Recently, healthy nutrition and certain nutrients or nutraceuticals reported to be effective in common relief functions in stroke and COVID-19 pathways. If growing studies confirm our hypothesis, it means that healthy nutrition could be a protective/preventive factor against COVID-19–associated stroke risk.