Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Transl Med. Aug 12, 2015; 4(2): 51-54
Published online Aug 12, 2015. doi: 10.5528/wjtm.v4.i2.51
Table 1 Problems and obstacles associated with some biomedical technologies
Biomedical technologiesApplied translational and clinical problems
Tissue engineeringHarvesting of autologous material, transplantation surgery, immunosuppression, infrastructure of delivery[13]
Stem cell therapiesClinical harvesting of cells, delivery (such as problems with bone marrow transplants[14]), inadequate integration of transplanted cells[15] and earlier-than-planned re-treatments
Immune therapiesSide effects, non-compliance, reluctance to accept as a treatment[16]
Genetic therapiesImmunity to vector, inadequate integration and assimilation of genes, unknown variables relating to genetic cross-talk[17] and over-expression, practical delivery methodologies
NanomedicineUnknown and unpredictable side effects (including immune system disruption), unknown end-results, toxicity, inflammation[18]
Pharmacological therapiesIneffective or complex treatments, tolerance, clinical polypharmacy, side effects, interactions and non-compliance[19]
Other disruptive interventions (apoptotic modulation, crosslink breakers, chemotherapy, chromosomal interventions)Unpredictability of the combined effect, adverse effects, cost, compliance, ethical and psychological problems, inadequate clinical capability to deliver the treatments[20]