Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Nephrol. May 6, 2015; 4(2): 160-168
Published online May 6, 2015. doi: 10.5527/wjn.v4.i2.160
Table 1 Baseline reference values of novel biomarkers of acute kidney injury obtained from different studies
BiomarkerInjurySourceTestUnitHealthy controls (range)
Cystatin CProximal tubule injurySerumNephelometric immunoassay/ELISAmg/L0.53-0.95[38]
0. 85 ± 0.21[39]
UrineNephelometric immunoassay/ELISAmg/L0.051-0.28[37]
NGALIschemia and nephrotoxinsSerumELISAng/mL86.3 ± 43.0 (men)[54]
88.9 ± 38.2 (women)[54]
56.71 ± 17.57[39]
1.7 ± 0.5[55]
11.94 ± 8.09[39]
0.8-28.9 (men)[96]
1.9-316.7 (women)[96]
KIM-1Ischemia and nephrotoxinsUrineELISApg/mL59-2146[70]
395.1 ± 398.8[39]
IL-18Toxic, delayed graft functionUrineELISApg/mL1.4-1.8[80]
L-FABPIschemia and nephrotoxinsUrineELISAng/mL3-400[83]
μg/gCr5.67 (2.74-8.21)[87]
NAGTubule injuryUrineColorimetryU/g0.75-0.90 U/g[95]
1.06 ± 0.1 U/g (children)[90]
Table 2 Biomarkers of acute kidney injury evaluated within urologic surgery settings
Ref.BiomarkerSourceCohortSurgical settingOutcomeComparisonTime
Langetepe et al[65]CysC, NGAL, KIM-1 CrUrine Serum31 RCC patientsPN, RNIncreased values of CysC, NGAL, KIM-1 NGAL significant correlation to Cr No advantage for earlier detection of renal injuryPre-/postoperative24 h after surgery
Sprenkle et al[63]NGALUrinePN: 88 patients, RN: 32 patients, thoracic surgery: 42 patientsPN, RN (warm or cold ischemia)No association between postoperative NGAL and any AKI AKI was not significantly associated with increased NGAL in PN patients No correlation with ischemia time Patients with eGFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 had higher NGAL postoperatively than those with an eGFR > 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2PN/RN /thoracic surgery patients4, 8, 12, 24 h post surgery
Parekh et al[62]Cr, NGAL, CysC NGAL, LFABP, NAG, KIM-1, IL-18Serum Urine, (renal biopsy)20 patients with renal massPN (warm or cold ischemia)Cr was significantly increased at 24 h CysC was not significantly changed at 2 or 24 h Significant increases serum NGAL at 2 and 24 h, increase of NGAL with increased ischemia time, no relation to peak Cr or morphology-score Early increases of L-FABP Early increase of NAG Increased NGAL at all times KIM-1maximally increased at 24 h IL-18 was increased at all time pointsCorrelation to renal biopsies (pre-, intra. postoperative)2 or 24 h after surgery
Schmid et al[50]Cr, CysCSerum31 RCC patientsPN, RNPostoperative Cysc and Cr elevations similarly predict renal function deterioration CysC-based GFR appears superior to eGFR in “Cr-blind” areaPre-/postoperative, 1 yr follow up24 h, 1 yr after surgery
Xue et al[76]Cr NGAL, KIM-1Serum Urine90 patients with obstructive uropathyNAKIM-1 and NGAL good accuracy for detecting AKI KIM-1 predicts the renal outcome 72 h postoperativelyPre-/postoperative4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 h after surgery
Cost et al[66]NGALUrine (bladder and renal pelvis)61 pediatric patients with ureteropelvic junction obstructionPyeloplastySignificantly increased bladder NGAL Inverse correlation of bladder and renal pelvic NGAL levels with the differential renal function of the affected kidneyHealthy childrenIntraoperative
Zekey et al[64]Cr NGALSerum Urine40 patients with kidney stonesSWLNo statistical Cr and urine NGAL levelsBefore/after interventionday 1, 2, 7 after intervention
Fahmy et al[74]KIM-1, NAGUrine60 patients with kidney stones (50 SWL, 10 URS)SWL, URSKIM-1 values were increased in patients with kidney stones when compared with volunteers KIM-1 and NAG levels significantly increased post-SWL Poor kidney function was significantly associated with increased KIM-1 and NAG baseline and post-SWL No significant change in urinary KIM-1 and NAG concentrations before and after URSVolunteers without kidney stones2-3 h after intervention
Ng et al[82]IL-18, NAGUrine206 patinets with renal stonesSWLIncreased IL-18 and NAG I slower shock wave delivery group60 vs 120 shock waves/minAfter intervention
Hatipoğlu et al[75]KIM-1 (free radical production)Urine30 patients with kidney stonesSWLSignificant increase of KIM-1Pre-/postoperative2 h after intervention