Copyright ©2012 Baishideng.
World J Nephrol. Dec 6, 2012; 1(6): 184-194
Published online Dec 6, 2012. doi: 10.5527/wjn.v1.i6.184
Table 1 Different dyslipidemic patterns at various stages of chronic kidney disease
Patients with CKD but NOT nephrotic syndromePatients with nephrotic syndromePatients on hemodialysisPatients on peritoneal dialysisTransplanted patients
Total CHL‹—› or ↑↑↑‹—› or ↓↑↑↑↑
LDL‹—› or ↑↑↑↑‹—› or ↓↑↑
TG↑↑↑↑↑‹—› or ↑
Table 2 Cardiovascular risk factors in chronic kidney disease patients
Traditionals (Framingham-like)Non-traditionals uremia-related
Male genderHyperomocysteinemia
DiabetesChronic inflammation
ObesityOxidative stress
HypertensionHyperparathyroidism and vascular calcifications
Insulin levelsAccumulation of metabolic products (advanced glycation end-products, asymmetric dimethyl arginine…)?
Family history
↑ Total cholesterol
↑ Apolipoprotein a1
↑ TG
↑ Apolipoprotein B
↑ Lipoprotein (a)
↑ Oxidized LDL
Table 3 The major side effects potentially attributable to statin therapy
Hepatic toxicity
Muscle toxicity including:
Myopathy (general term referring to any disease of muscles)
Myalgia (muscle ache or weakness without creatine kinase increase) in 1%-3%
Myositis (muscle symptoms with increase creatine kinase levels) in 0.1%
Rhabdomyolysis (muscle symptoms with increase > 10 × the upper limit of normal CK and creatinine elevation, usually associated with brown urine and urinary mioglobina in 0.0005%