Copyright ©The Author(s) 2020.
World J Virol. Sep 25, 2020; 9(3): 19-26
Published online Sep 25, 2020. doi: 10.5501/wjv.v9.i3.19
Table 1 Human immunodeficiency virus-related genes and their coding proteins, specific functions, and host-cell related proteins
GeneEncoding proteinProtein functionHost cell-related proteins
Structural genes
gagMAMatrix proteinsKaryopherins, HO3, Calmodulin, VAN/NAF1, TRIM5α, CyPA
CACapsid proteinHP68/RNase L inhibitor, Actin
NCNucleocapsid proteinESCRT, Tsg-101, AIP-1, Nedd4, Ubiquitin
p6Nucleocapsid protein-
polRTA viral genome that can be transcribed and copied-
PRCut polymerized protein-
INIntegrate viral DNA with cellular DNAINI1/hSNF5, LEDGF/p75, BAF, HMGal, ATR,
ATM, Karyopherins, XRCC5
envgp120Attach the virus to the surface of the cellCD4, CCR5. CXCR4, DC-SIGN, DC-SIGNR, MR, CD207
gp41Fusion with host cells-
Necessary regulatory genes
tatTatTrans-activated proteins that activate HIV gene transcriptionNF-κB, cyclin T, CDK9, Med28
revRevA regulator of viral protein expression that regulates mRNA splicing and promotes mRNA transport to the cytoplasmTNPO3, importin β, Crm1, Ran GTPase, Sam68, p32
Nonessential regulatory genes
nefNefNegative regulatory factors, which change cell signals, reduce the expression of CD4 and MHC-I molecules, and reduce the killing of HIV infected cells by CTL, representing essential factors in the development of infection into AIDSPACS-l, ASK1, PAK, PI3-K, Lck, VAN/NAFl
vifVifViral infectious factors that promote viral assembly and maturationAPOBEC3G
vprVprViral protein regulatory, which transports viral DMA to the nucleus and inhibits cell growthKaryopherins, Uracil-DNA glycosylase, Weel
vpuVpuViral protein U that promotes the release of the virusCD317 (Tetherin, BST-2)