Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Pharmacol. Mar 9, 2015; 4(1): 144-159
Published online Mar 9, 2015. doi: 10.5497/wjp.v4.i1.144
Role of opioid receptor heterodimerization in pain modulation and tolerance development
Annu Mudgal, Santosh Pasha
Annu Mudgal, Santosh Pasha, Peptide Synthesis Laboratory, CSIR/Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Delhi 110007, India
Annu Mudgal, Santosh Pasha, Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, New Delhi 110025, India
Author contributions: Pasha S and Mudgal A contributed to this review.
Supported by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research.
Conflict-of-interest: The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding this manuscript.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Correspondence to: Dr. Santosh Pasha, Peptide Synthesis Laboratory, CSIR/Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, Mall Road, Delhi 110007, India.
Telephone: +91-11-27666156 Fax: +91-11-27667471
Received: July 15, 2014
Peer-review started: July 15, 2014
First decision: August 28, 2014
Revised: January 27, 2015
Accepted: February 9, 2015
Article in press: February 11, 2015
Published online: March 9, 2015
Core Tip

Core tip: Endogenous opioid peptides are known for their analgesic effects. However their analgesic effect is downplayed by the side-effect of tolerance development. To maintain homeostasis to their effect, other endogenous anti-opioid peptides works parallel to it. The present work highlights the role of anti-opiates in development of tolerance to opiate drugs.