Published online Mar 9, 2015. doi: 10.5497/wjp.v4.i1.1
Peer-review started: July 10, 2014
First decision: September 16, 2014
Revised: October 22, 2014
Accepted: December 16, 2014
Article in press: December 17, 2014
Published online: March 9, 2015
Core tip: Chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CP/CPPS) is difficult-to-treat because of the multitude of potential etiologies that are not easily observed and delayed diagnosis. Pharmacological monotherapy with antibiotics, alpha-blockers and anti-inflammatories provide significant symptomatic improvement in a limited number of patients. Multidrug therapies are recommended for monotherapy refractory patients. Complementary and interventional therapies such as acupuncture, myofascial trigger point release and pelvic floor biofeedback can provide additional symptomatic relief. Current recommendations involve a treatment algorithm based on UPOINT phenotypic presentation for CP/CPPS patients. Keeping in mind the high prevalence of CP/CPPS, development of novel therapies and an effective vaccine for prevention of CP/CPPS is crucial.