Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016. Published by Baishideng Publishing Group Inc. All rights reserved.
World J Pharmacol. Jun 9, 2016; 5(2): 51-58
Published online Jun 9, 2016. doi: 10.5497/wjp.v5.i2.51
Long-term potentiation in autonomic ganglia: Potential role in cardiovascular disorders
Karim A Alkadhi
Karim A Alkadhi, Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, United States
Author contributions: Alkadhi KA contributed all to this paper.
Conflict-of-interest statement: Alkadhi KA declares no conflict of interest related to this publication.
Open-Access: This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See:
Correspondence to: Karim A Alkadhi, PhD, Professor, Department of Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Houston, SR-2, Cullen Blvd, Houston, TX 77204, United States.
Telephone: +1-713-7431212 Fax: +1-713-7431229
Received: April 22, 2016
Peer-review started: April 28, 2016
First decision: May 13, 2016
Revised: May 21, 2016
Accepted: May 27, 2016
Article in press: June 2, 2016
Published online: June 9, 2016

Ganglionic long-term potentiation (gLTP) is an activity-dependent, enduring enhancement of ganglionic transmission. This phenomenon may be induced in autonomic ganglia of an organism under certain conditions where repetitive impulses surge from the central nervous system (CNS) to the periphery. Chronic stress, repetitive epileptic seizure or chronic use of CNS stimulants could induce gLTP, which would result in a long lasting heightening of sympathetic tone to the cardiovascular system causing hypertension and disturbed cardiac rhythm that may lead to sudden cardiac death. These conditions are briefly reviewed in this article.

Keywords: Electrophysiology, Epilepsy, Ganglionic long-term potentiation, Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy, Central nervous system stimulants, Sudden cardiac death

Core tip: Heightened activity of the central nervous system (CNS) caused by epilepsy, chronic stress and CNS stimulants could provide strong preganglionic stimulation of autonomic ganglia, which may trigger expression of ganglionic long-term potentiation (gLTP). Expression of gLTP can result in cardiovascular dysfunction that may lead to morbidity and even mortality.