Tajudeen Olanrewaju Yahaya, Ja'afar Umar, Abdulrazaq Izuafa, Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State 23401, Nigeria
Danlami M Bashar, Department of Microbiology, Federal University Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State 23401, Nigeria
Esther O Oladele, Biology Unit, Distance Learning Institute, University of Lagos, Lagos State 23401, Nigeria
Daniel Anyebe, Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Federal University Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State 23401, Nigeria
Author contributions: Yahaya TO conceptualized, performed the literature search, article writing and correspondence; Bashar DM performed the literature search and article writing; Oladele EO and Umar J performed article writing and proofreading; Anyebe D and Izuafa I performed article sorting; all authors proofread, and approved the final manuscript.
Conflict-of-interest statement: All the authors declared no conflict of interest.
PRISMA 2009 Checklist statement: The authors have read the PRISMA 2009 Checklist, and the manuscript was prepared and revised according to the PRISMA 2009 Checklist. A structured abstract is provided on page 2; rationale and objectives of the study are provided in the introduction on page 5; methodology, which described eligibility criteria for article selection, databases searched, and article selection criteria, is reported on page 5; results are synthesized on page 6; and a discussion of results is provided on pages 6–19.
: This article is an open-access article that was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: https://creativecommons.org/Licenses/by-nc/4.0/
Corresponding author: Tajudeen Olanrewaju Yahaya, PhD, Associate Professor, Department of Biological Sciences, Federal University Birnin Kebbi, Along Kalgo/Bunza Road, Birnin Kebbi, Kebbi State 23401, Nigeria. email@example.com
Received: March 5, 2022
Peer-review started: March 5, 2022
First decision: June 16, 2022
Revised: June 28, 2022
Accepted: October 12, 2022
Article in press: October 12, 2022
Published online: October 27, 2022