Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Clin Infect Dis. Feb 25, 2015; 5(1): 1-10
Published online Feb 25, 2015. doi: 10.5495/wjcid.v5.i1.1
Table 1 Outcome of invasive pneumococcal disease in solid organ transplantation recipients
Ref.nInclusion periodOrganTime since transplant median (range)Type of IPDPrior vaccinationMost frequent isolated serotypesGraft dysfunction/lossMortality
Linnemann et al[14]121971-1977KidneyNo dataPneumonia: 83% Bacteremia: 41% Meningitis: 16%No8, 9, 12, 2475%/22.2%8.30% (1/12)
Amber et al[15]51985-1987Heart0.15 yr (1.2-4.4 mo)Pneumonia: 80% Bacteremia: 20%No320%/No data0%
de Bruyn et al[16]141992-2003Lung1.3 yr (9.6 mo-2.3 yr)Pneumonia: 78% Bacteremia: 21%100%23F, 19A, 6No data7.10% (1/14)
Kumar et al[9]211995-2004Kidney: 11 Liver: 9 Lung: 12.7 yr (1.3 mo-23.8 yr)Pneumonia: 57% Bacteremia: 33% Peritonitis: 5% Parotitis: 5%23.80%23F, 22F, 19FNo data28.60% (6/21)
Table 2 Pneumococcal vaccination studies in kidney transplantation in adult recipients
Ref.NTime since transplantVaccineTechniqueResponse to immunizationLong term immune response
Silberman et al[59]27 KT vs 24 healthy adults7-108 mo14-valentIndirect hemagglutination4-fold increase in titers, equivalent to controlsNot studied
Marrie et al[60]63 KT vs 8 healthy adults3-99 mo14-valentRIA2.8-fold increase in titers in KT vs 3.4-fold in controlsGMT in KT: 872 ng N/mL post-vaccine 659 ng N/mL at 12 mo
Cosio et al[61]25 KT (14 asplenia) vs 14 healthy adults3-118 mo14-valentRIA2-fold increase in titers in 93% of 14 healthy adults vs 78% of 14 splenectomized KT and 55% of 11 non-splenectomized KT patientsNot studied
Linneman et al[62,63]104 KT (79 asplenia) vs 33 patients in hemodialysisNo data14-valentRIA1.4-fold increase in antibody titers: 91%GMT post-vaccine with lower response in splenectomized KT vs non-splenectomized KT patients (394 vs 626 ng N/mL, P < 0.05) GMT post-vaccine with lower response in KT patients before 6 mo after transplant vs hemodialysis patients (303 vs 592 ng N/mL, P < 0.05)GMT at 24 mo in 33 KT: 932 ng N/mL post-vaccine 385 ng N/mL at 24 mo 536 ng N/mL at revaccination
Arnold et al[64]75 KT (32 asplenia) vs 60 healthy controls> 12 mo14-valentSerum opsonizing antibody2-fold increase in titers to serotypes 12F and 14 No differences in splenectomized vs non-splenectomized KT recipientsNot studied
Rytel et al[65]61 KT (57 asplenia) vs 23 patients in dialysis vs 9 healthy controls> 6 mo14-valentRIAEquivalent protective GMT titers vs controlsEquivalent at 1, 2, and 3.5 yr vs controls
Kazancioglu et al[69]21 KT vs 25 healthy controls> 2 moPPV23ELISAProtective response to vaccination (40% increases in the antibody concentration) in 95.2% of KT at 1.5 and 3 mo after vaccinationNot studied
Kumar et al[78,79]30 KT (PPV23) vs 30 KT (PCV7)3 mo-3 yrPPV23 vs PCV7ELISA, OPAResponse to at least 1 serotype: no significant differences in antibody titers between PPV23 and PVC7, both using ELISA (53.3% vs 73.3%) and OPA (83.3% vs 80%)Vaccine responses decline significantly after 3 yr and conjugate vaccine does not improve the durability of response
Table 3 Pneumococcal vaccination studies in heart and liver transplantation in adult recipients
Ref.nType and time since transplantVaccineTechniqueResponse to immunizationLong term immune response
McCash- land et al[68]25 LT vs 13 healthy controlsLT 1 - 6 moPPV23ELISAPneumococcal antibody levels were significantly increased over baseline by 1 mo after vaccination in both groupsAt 6th mo: antibody levels declined faster in patients than in control subjects
Amber et al[15]6 HT before and after transplantationHT 0.6 - 5.3 moUnva- ccinatedRIAProtective antibody titers to 12 pneumococcal serotypes contained in PPV23 in a mean of 8.7 ± 1.2 serotypes before transplantation vs 6.5 ± 1.4 serotypes after transplantation (P < 0.05)Not studied
Dengler et al[66]16 HT vs 23 healthy controlsHT > 12 moPPV23ELISAProtective post-vaccine antibody titers (> 1000 U/mL): 94% in HT recipients vs 100% in controlsNot studied
Blumberg et al[67]35 HT vs 35 healthy controls. Group 2 (n = 21), vaccinated before this study The HT patients were classified as: Group 1 (n = 11), no vaccinated before this study No data about previous vaccine (n = 2)HT 55 - 122 moPPV23ELISAPost-vaccine antibody titers were higher in group 2 than in group 1 for all pneumococcal serotypes (P < 0.05 for all serotypes, except 3)Detectable antibody titers at 24 mo (only 7 available patients) in 50% to serotypes 19F and 23F and in 80% to serotype 3