Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016.
World J Hypertens. Feb 23, 2016; 6(1): 53-59
Published online Feb 23, 2016. doi: 10.5494/wjh.v6.i1.53
Table 1 Recommended lifestyle modifications for the management of hypertension
Weight loss (in obese or overweight patients)
Salt reduction
Regular exercise
Moderation of alcohol consumption
Smoking cessation
Increased consumption of vegetables, fruits and low-fat diary products
Table 2 Drugs to be preferred in patients with special conditions
ComorbidityFirst-line therapy
Ischemic heart diseaseβ-blocker (unless contraindicated) Long-acting calcium channel blocker ACE inhibitors (ARBs if ACE inhibitors not tolerated)
Heart failureACE inhibitors (ARBs if ACE inhibitors not tolerated) β-blockers Aldosterone antagonists
DiabetesACE inhibitors (ARBs if ACE inhibitors not tolerated) β-blockers Calcium channel blockers
Chronic kidney diseaseACE inhibitors or ARBs Loop diuretics rather than a thiazide diuretic (or combination)
StrokeDiuretic + ACE inhibitors
Asymptomatic organ damage
Left ventricular hypertrophyACE inhibitors, ARBs, Calcium channel blockers
ProteinuriaACE inhibitors, ARBs