Published online Aug 20, 2017. doi: 10.5493/wjem.v7.i3.58
Peer-review started: March 28, 2017
First decision: May 9, 2017
Revised: June 11, 2017
Accepted: June 30, 2017
Article in press: July 3, 2017
Published online: August 20, 2017
Core tip: Bone-marrow generates multiple cell types which may play important roles in repair at distant sites. The use of surgical models in the characterization of this emerging function has hitherto been limited. Surgical strategies allow nevertheless the experimenter to predetermine the site, timing, severity and invasiveness of injury; to add or remove aggravating factors (such as infection and defects in immunity) in controlled ways; and to manipulate the context of repair, including reconstitution with selected immune cell subpopulations. Here we review surgical models with great potential for exploring bone-marrow responses to injury, inflammation and infection.