Published online Nov 20, 2014. doi: 10.5493/wjem.v4.i4.46
Revised: July 15, 2014
Accepted: August 27, 2014
Published online: November 20, 2014
Core tip: The notion of reactive oxygen species (ROS) -mediated accumulation of mutations in mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) as a driving force behind aging is increasingly losing ground forcing a revision of the Mitochondrial Theory of Aging. While mitochondrial involvement remains in the center of attention of aging research, the focus is shifting from mtDNA mutations to mitochondrial physiology. The positive effect of increased ROS production on longevity is increasingly viewed as evidence that increased ROS production in aging may be adaptive rather than maladaptive. This novel paradigm explains failure of antioxidants to delay aging in clinical trials.