Published online May 20, 2015. doi: 10.5493/wjem.v5.i2.110
Peer-review started: October 5, 2014
First decision: December 12, 2014
Revised: January 28, 2015
Accepted: February 4, 2015
Article in press: February 9, 2015
Published online: May 20, 2015
Cardiovascular (CV) complications are an essential causal element of prospect in diabetes mellitus (DM), with carotid atherosclerosis being a common risk factor for prospective crisis of coronary artery diseases and/or cerebral infarction in DM subjects. From another point of view, asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) has been established as an inhibitor of endogenous nitric oxide synthesis and the relationship between ADMA and arteriosclerosis has been reported. In our study with 87 type 2 DM (T2DM) patients, we have examined whether ADMA and other CV risk factors are the useful predictors of DMCV complications. After the measurement of the respective CV risk factors, we have followed the enrolled T2DM patients for 5 years. We have finally analyzed 77 patients. DMCV complications developed in 15 cases newly within 5 years, and 4 cases recurred. The concentrations of ADMA in plasma were markedly more elevated in 19 DM patients with CV complications than in 58 DM patients without CV complications. Urinary albumin (U-Alb), mean intimal-medial thickness (IMT) and ankle brachial index (ABI) were also higher in patients with CV complications. Multiple regression analyses showed that U-Alb had an influence on the high level of ADMA (standardized β = 6.59, P = 0.00014) independently of age, systolic BP, fibrinogen, mean IMT, plaque score, and ABI. The review indicates what is presently known regarding plasma ADMA that might be a new and meaningful biomarker of CV complications in DM subjects.
Core tip: Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is an emerging independent biomarker for prospective cardiovascular (CV) complications. In our study, the results show that the cases with a high level of ADMA could have diabetes mellitus CV (DMCV) complications in the future within five years. Furthermore, not only ADMA but also urinary albumin was associated with DMCV complications in the multiple regression analyses. The clinical acceptation of this parameter will rely on the availability of therapies to immediately reduce ADMA such as incretin-based drugs, which could support the part of ADMA as an etiologic risk factor.