Published online Apr 20, 2012. doi: 10.5493/wjem.v2.i2.30
Revised: March 25, 2012
Accepted: April 10, 2012
Published online: April 20, 2012
AIM: To optimize the experimental protocols for a simple, sensitive and accurate bleeding assay.
METHODS: Bleeding assay was performed in mice by tail tip amputation, immersing the tail in saline at 37 °C, continuously monitoring bleeding patterns and measuring bleeding volume from changes in the body weight. Sensitivity and extent of variation of bleeding time and bleeding volume were compared in mice treated with the P2Y receptor inhibitor prasugrel at various doses or in mice deficient of FcRγ, a signaling protein of the glycoprotein VI receptor.
RESULTS: We described details of the bleeding assay with the aim of standardizing this commonly used assay. The bleeding assay detailed here was simple to operate and permitted continuous monitoring of bleeding pattern and detection of re-bleeding. We also reported a simple and accurate way of quantifying bleeding volume from changes in the body weight, which correlated well with chemical assay of hemoglobin levels (r2 = 0.990, P < 0.0001). We determined by tail bleeding assay the dose-effect relation of the anti-platelet drug prasugrel from 0.015 to 5 mg/kg. Our results showed that the correlation of bleeding time and volume was unsatisfactory and that compared with the bleeding time, bleeding volume was more sensitive in detecting a partial inhibition of platelet’s haemostatic activity (P < 0.01). Similarly, in mice with genetic disruption of FcRγ as a signaling molecule of P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 leading to platelet dysfunction, both increased bleeding volume and repeated bleeding pattern defined the phenotype of the knockout mice better than that of a prolonged bleeding time.
CONCLUSION: Determination of bleeding pattern and bleeding volume, in addition to bleeding time, improved the sensitivity and accuracy of this assay, particularly when platelet function is partially inhibited.