Published online Jan 20, 2021. doi: 10.5493/wjem.v11.i1.1
Peer-review started: June 11, 2020
First decision: October 21, 2020
Revised: November 2, 2020
Accepted: November 11, 2020
Article in press: November 11, 2020
Published online: January 20, 2021
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are closely linked to nutrition. The latest research indicates that diet and nutrition are significantly involved in the etiopathogenesis of the disease, although their specific role throughout its clinical course still remains unclear. This study reviewed how diet and nutrition are associated with IBD development and management. Even though specific diets have been shown to bring about positive outcomes, there is currently no scientific consensus regarding an appropriate diet that would benefit all IBD patients. We suggest that individualized dietary recommendations are of the greatest importance and that diets should be planned to provide individual IBD patients with specific nutrient requirements while keeping all the clinical aspects of the patients in mind. Further research is clearly necessary to investigate nutritional factors involved in IBD development and, especially, to evaluate the applications of the diets during the course of the disease.
Core Tip: Although inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) affects the gastrointestinal tract, the role of diet in the course of disease is often underestimated. Many studies have assessed the effect of diet in the risk of developing IBD, and the importance of nutrition in the etiopathogenesis of IBD was confirmed by the fast increase in its incidence and prevalence over the last two decades. We discuss the role of diet and nutrition in the etiology and management of IBD based on the data provided in the literature and set out an agenda for future research.