Copyright ©The Author(s) 2023.
World J Immunol. Aug 15, 2023; 13(2): 11-22
Published online Aug 15, 2023. doi: 10.5411/wji.v13.i2.11
Table 1 Summary of approaches to target memory stem cells in different disease conditions
Target molecules
1HIV-1 infectionEx vivo expansion of CD8+ TSCM cells with IL-7 & IL-15 with CD3/CD28T cell receptor[46]
2Immunodeficiency, tumorEx vivo expansion of CD8+ TSCM cells with urolithin APink-1 mediated mitophagy. Dephosphorylation of β-catenin through action of Wnt signaling [61]
3Tumors and malignanciesUse of TSCM-like CAR-T cells (particularly CAR modified CD8+ T cells)Various tumor/lymphoma antigens[65-67,69]
4Chronic viral infectionsIncreased survival of CD8+ TSCM through Wnt agonistsIncreased expression of TCF1[64]
5HIV-1 infectionNanoparticles or aptamers targeting latent reservoirs by inducing differentiation of TSCM cells to effector memory subsetsKey molecules of Wnt-β-catenin pathway[1]
6HIV-1 infectionShock and kill strategy to reactivate HIV from CD4+ TSCM cells with LRAs + TLR agonists to activate CD8+ T cellsKilling of activated reservoirs by cytotoxic T cells[76]
7HIV-1 infectionBlock and Lock strategy by HIV Tat inhibitorsNo HIV replication by blocking of HIV promoter[77]
8Autoimmune diseasesNanoparticles or siRNA to suppress TSCM cellsInhibition of key molecules of NF-κB signaling[79,80]
9Autoimmune diseasesWnt agonists or shRNA or inhibitors such as PRI-724 to disrupt TSCM cells by inducing differentiation to EM cellsTCF7, CBP/β-catenin pathway[1,81]
10Autoimmune diseasesInduced differentiation of TSCM cells to short lived EM cellsMolecules of mTOR/AMPK pathway[1]
11Type-1 diabetesSelective inhibition of metabolic machinery of TSCM cellsDecreased glucose metabolism through inhibition of GLUT1[5]
12Type-1 diabetesAntibodies to block CCR7 to target TSCM cellsCCR7[86]