Copyright ©The Author(s) 2023.
World J Immunol. Aug 15, 2023; 13(2): 11-22
Published online Aug 15, 2023. doi: 10.5411/wji.v13.i2.11
Figure 1
Figure 1 Varying roles of stem cell-like memory T cells during chronic (human immunodeficiency virus-1) and acute (COVID-19) viral infections and autoimmune diseases (type 1 diabetes). In chronic human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) infection, the CD4+ stem cell-like memory T (TSCM) cells act as latent reservoirs of HIV-1, whereas the CD8+ TSCM cells exhibit an exhausted phenotype with upregulation of inhibitory molecules like programmed cell death 1. In case of post coronavirus disease 2019 infection or vaccination, viral specific TSCM cells are generated that provide long term protective immunity. In autoimmune responses, such as during type 1 diabetes, TSCM cells generate autoreactive effector-memory (TEM) and effector T (Teff) cell subsets that perpetuate the ongoing inflammatory responses. HIV-1: Human immunodeficiency virus-1; PD-1: Programmed cell death 1; T1D: Type 1 diabetes; TSCM: Stem cell-like memory T; COVID: Coronavirus disease 2019.