Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016.
World J Clin Pediatr. Aug 8, 2016; 5(3): 273-280
Published online Aug 8, 2016. doi: 10.5409/wjcp.v5.i3.273
Table 1 Description of the clinical, radiological, histological findings of the different subtypes of infantile hepatic hemangiomas and recommended treatment for the three different subgroups of infantile hepatic hemangiomas
OnsetPrenatal developmentPostnatal (few weeks after birth)Postnatal (few weeks after birth)
Association with cutaneous IHRarelyFrequentlyFrequently
MRISolitary tumor; robust enhancement; often with Ca2+ and central cystic changeHypointense to liver on T1, hyperintense on T2. Rapid enhancement. May have central flow voids on T2 spin echo sequenceNear-total replacement of the hepatic parenchyma with many lesions
CTRapid enhancement. Often with Ca2+ and central cystic changesHomogenously; uniform or centripetalInnumerable centripetally but rapidly enhancing lesions
Glut-1 stainingNegativePositivePositive
ComorbiditiesPossible anemia and relatively mild thrombocytopenia; AV shunting; High-output cardiac stateHigh-flow shunting resulting in high-output; Cardiac failureHigh-output cardiac failure; Abdominal compartment syndrome; Severe hypothyroidism
TreatmentObservation; embolization for problematic shuntingObservation; propranolol/embolization for problematic shunting, possibly propranolol; hypothyroidismPropranolol, thyroid hormone replacement, embolization in the cases of severe arteriovenous shunting (rare in diffuse IHHs), transplantation evaluation for the most extreme cases