Copyright ©The Author(s) 2024.
World J Clin Oncol. Jan 24, 2024; 15(1): 9-22
Published online Jan 24, 2024. doi: 10.5306/wjco.v15.i1.9
Table 1 Functions/mechanisms of six transmembrane epithelial antigens of the prostate involved in gastrointestinal cancers
STEAP1StomachPromoting peritoneal metastasis of GC[113]
Regulated at the level of cap-dependent translation initiation by phosphorylated eIF4E in GC[114]
Increasing cell proliferation, migration, and invasion of GC, via the activation of AKT/FoxO1 pathway and epithelial-mesenchymal transition[72]
Colon/rectumInducing cytotoxic T lymphocytes to recognize colon cancer with STEAP1 by specific STEAP1 peptide[81]
Reducing ROS and preventing apoptosis of CRC cells via NRF2 pathway[115]
LiverIncreased hepatic uptake of STEAP1 antibody-drug conjugates[116]
Accelerating cell proliferation by targeting c-Myc in liver cancer cells[100]
STEAP3Colon/rectumIncreased in CRC, along with CTR1 to induce copper accumulation[84]
Facilitating iron uptake and resistance to iron deprivation-induced apoptosis under hypoferric condition[86]
Time-dependent change of STEAP3 during inflammatory activation, along with specific accumulation of Fe (II) in inflammatory-activated macrophages[85]
Increasing exosome secretion in CRC, which can be cleaved by RHBDD1 in a dose/activity dependent manner[87]
Protected by hypoxia-induced lncRNA STEAP3-AS1 by preventing m6A-mediated degradation of STEAP3 mRNA[89]
LiverDecreased expression in liver, associated with the transition from cirrhosis to HCC[117]
Increased in HCC cell nucleus, promoting proliferation via RAC1-ERK-STAT3 and RAC1-JNK-STAT6 signaling axes[102]
Ferroptosis-related differential gene in HCV-infected cirrhotic HCC, impaired by matrix stiffness[105]
STEAP4StomachHighly expressed in GC, associated with infiltration of immune cells[73]
Colon/rectumDecreased in CRC and positively correlated with immune-related biomarkers[118]
Highly induced in mouse models of colitis and inflammatory bowel disease patients, increasing ROS production in a hypoxia-dependent manner[91]
Induced by the inflammatory cytokine IL-17 to drive copper uptake, critical for colon tumor formation[119]
LiverLowly expressed in HCC, controlled by hypermethylation in STEAP4 promoter region[109]
Inhibiting proliferation and metastasis of HCC through PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway inhibition[111]
Low level in HCC, associated with advanced HCC stage, poor survival, and immunosuppressive microenvironment[112]
Stimulated by the inflammatory cytokine IL-6, through STAT3 and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha in liver[106]
Hepatic STEAP4 antagonizes HBx-mediated hepatocyte dysfunction by interacting with and decreasing the stability of HBx[107]
Therapeutic effect of recombinant FGF21 on NAFLD is performed by increasing hepatic STEAP4 to protect hepatocytes[108]