Copyright ©The Author(s) 2022.
World J Clin Oncol. Mar 24, 2022; 13(3): 168-185
Published online Mar 24, 2022. doi: 10.5306/wjco.v13.i3.168
Table 1 Selection of assumed target genes of β-catenin
Function of the protein
ATOH1Transcription factor, secretory cell line differentiation[137,138]
AXIN2Part of destruction complex Wnt signaling[139]
BIRC5Apoptosis inhibitor[141]
BMP4Possible Wnt inhibitor[142]
CCND1Cell proliferation[143]
CDKN2ACell cycle inhibitor[144]
CDX1Transcription factor, intestinal cell differentiation[145]
CDX2Transcription factor, intestinal cell differentiation[146]
DKK1/4Inhibitor of Wnt signaling[147,148]
EPHB2/3Migration and proliferation in intestine epithelial[149]
HD5/6Defensine, microbial defense[150]
HEF1Supports activation of oncogenic signaling pathways[151]
HES1Regulation of Notch signaling[152]
JAG1Ligand of Notch signaling[153]
JUNCell cycle progression, apoptosis inhibitor[154,155]
LGR5Part of Wnt signaling[156]
MDR1Plasma membrane protein involved in the drug resistance[123,124]
METDifferentiation of intestinal epithelium[157]
MYCBPControl of transcriptional activity of c-MYC[159]
NOTCH2Notch receptor[160]
SGK1Inhibits pro-apoptotic transcription factors[161]
SOX9Paneth cell differentiation[32,162]
YAPTranscription factor (Hippo signaling) activates genes involved in cell proliferation, suppresses apoptotic genes[163]
Table 2 Selection of potential target opportunities to inhibit Wnt/β-catenin signaling
Ligand-dependent Wnt signaling activation
Wnt ligandsWnt inhibitors[164]
Posttranslational modification[165]
Dkk1Stabilization, increase of Dkk1[128,166]
Transmembrane complexInhibition of Lgr5/6[167]
Inhibition of Frizzled[168,169]
Ligand independent Wnt signaling activation
Destruction complexStabilization of the destruction complex[171,172]
β-cateninIncrease of degradation [130,131]
Inhibition of translocation to the nucleolus[173]
β-catenin cofactors[174]
Ribosome biogenesis[134]
Oncolytic viruses[132,133]