Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021.
World J Clin Oncol. May 24, 2021; 12(5): 309-322
Published online May 24, 2021. doi: 10.5306/wjco.v12.i5.309
Table 1 Synthetic of evidence on coronavirus disease 2019 specific therapeutic strategies
Nature of therapeutics
Study type
Anti-viral drugs32360583SRLopinavir-ritonavir or ribavirinImproved mortality rate, radiographical improvement and reduced clinical developmentInconclusive evidences, low quality of evidence and heterogeneity of interventions
32309809Lopinavir-ritonavir or Arbidol or Oseltamivir or Lianhuaqingwen capsule or interferonNo benefits in 199 subjectsSide effects. Inconclusive evidence lacks of data recording. Sample size
32493740SR & MA
32293807SRLopinavir-ritonavirNo clinical benefitsAdverse side effects. Inconclusive outcomes. Low body of evidence. Small sample size
32506110RemdesivirNo clinical benefitsInconclusive outcomes high-quality evidence well-designed studies. Safety
Immune therapy32406927SRPlasma transfusionHad beneficial outcomesSide effects. Inconclusive outcomes. Very low-certainty. High risk of bias. Low reporting quality
32272396Plasma therapy or hyperimmune immunoglobulin transfusionHad beneficial outcomesMore evidence. Promising strategy. Sample size. Lack of control group
Anti-malaria drugs32359203SRHydroxychloroquine/ChloroquineHad beneficial outcomesInconclusive outcomes. Methodological flaws. Risk of bias. Lack of evidence
32281213No clinical benefitsLack of evidence. Safety issues
32468425Methodological flaws. Small sample size. Safety issues
32173110Lack of evidence. Safety issues. Methodological flaws. Small sample size
Hormone therapy32283144SR & MACorticosteroidsNo clinical benefitsLack of evidence. Adverse side effects. Methodological flaws. Caution needed
Anti-hypertension drugs32542337SR & MAACEI/ARBHad beneficial outcomesConflicting results, scarce existing data. Diverse study types. Inconsistent clinical studies, more RCT needed
Table 2 Vaccines specific to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 under clinical investigation and their development status
Vaccine name
Vaccine type
Registration ID
Date of registration
2019-nCOVAdenovirus vaccinePhase IIChiCTR200003178110-Apr-20Academy of Military Medical Sciences
Ad5-nCoVAdenovirus vaccinePhase IINCT0434138910-Apr-20CanSino Biologics
AV-COVID-19Autologous dendritic cellsPhase IB/IINCT0438625213-May-20Aivita Biomedical, Inc
BBIBP-CorVInactivated virusPhase I/IIChiCTR200003245929-Apr-20Beijing Institute of Biological Products & Sinopharm
BNT162mRNA vaccinePhase I/IINCT043807018-May-20BioNTech and Pfizer
ChAdOx1Adenovirus vaccinePhase II/IIINCT0440083826-May-20University of Oxford
Covax-19™SARS-CoV-2 spike proteinPhase INCT0442807311-Jun-20GeneCure Biotechnologies
COVID-19/aAPCAntigen presenting cellsPhase INCT042997249-Mar-20Shenzhen Geno-Immune Medical Institute
INO-4800DNA vaccinePhase INCT043364107-Apr-20Inovio Pharmaceuticals
LV-SMENP-DCLentiviral vector systemPhase I/IINCT0427689619-Feb-20Shenzhen Geno-Immune Medical Institute
mRNA-1273mRNA vaccinePhase IINCT0440507628-May-20ModernaTX, Inc
NVX-CoV2373Recombinant Spike ProteinPhase I/IINCT0436898830-Apr-20Novavax
PiCoVaccInactivated virus + adjuvantPhase I/IINCT0435260820-Apr-20Sinovac
V- SARSHeat-inactivated plasmaPhase I/IINCT043805328-May-20Immunitor LLC
Vero cellsInactivated virusPhase I/IIChiCTR200003180911-Apr-20Wuhan Institute of Biological Products & Sinopharm