Basic Study
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2021.
World J Clin Oncol. May 24, 2021; 12(5): 342-354
Published online May 24, 2021. doi: 10.5306/wjco.v12.i5.342
Figure 2
Figure 2 Royal jelly and thymoquinone combinations enhanced the inhibition of MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cell viability. A: Representative light microscopy images of MDA-MB-231 viability in response to different treatments. Cells were visualized by Axiovert inverted microscope from Zeiss at 10 × magnification with scale bar = 10 µmol/L; B: Trypan blue exclusion assay showing the percentage viability of MDA-MB-231 cell line after 24 h of treatment with different concentrations of royal jelly (RJ), thymoquinone, and combinations. Data shown are an average of three independent experiments expressed as mean ± standard error of the mean. Asterisks represent statistically significant results compared to the control and treatment conditions, (aP < 0.05, bP < 0.01, cP < 0.001); C: Fraction affected-combination index plot showing combination index (CI) values plotted as a function of fraction affected values corresponding to the % cell death of five different combinations of thymoquinone (5 µmol/L, 7.5 µmol/L, 10 µmol/L and 15 µmol/L) and royal jelly (0.1 and 5 µg/mL) in MDA-MB-231 cells. The dotted line is the reference line, where CI value is equal to 1; circles in black represent CI values at different Fa. CI > 1, CI = 1, and CI < 1 indicate antagonistic, additive, and synergistic effects, respectively. CI: Combination index; RJ: Royal jelly; TQ: Thymoquinone.