Copyright ©The Author(s) 2022.
World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol. Jan 22, 2022; 13(1): 1-14
Published online Jan 22, 2022. doi: 10.4291/wjgp.v13.i1.1
Table 1 Molecular pathways affected in hepatocellular carcinoma and their related protein-coding genes[14,33,34] and KEGG pathways database[35]
Pathways and genetic regulators
ProliferationWnt pathway: MYC, FGF19, APC, AXINMAPK/ERK signaling pathway: mTOR, ERK 1/2
Cell growth and angiogenesisRTK/RAS/PI(3)K pathway: PIK3CA, VEGF, EGF, MET, KRAS, PTEN, AKT1/2, FGFR1, NF1, TSC1/2, TGF-β pathway: SMAD2/3, SMAD4
ApoptosisTP53 signaling pathway: MDM4, MDM2, CDKN2A, RPS6KA3
Cell immortalityTelomerase production: TERT
Cell cycle progressionRB1, CCND1, CDK4, CCNE1
Cell differentiationHNF1A
Autophagy RAS/RAF/MEK/ERK pathway, PI3K-AKT (AKT kinase)-mTOR pathway, and Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway: Becilin-1, ATG3, ATG5, ATG7
Inflammatory responseIL-6 stimulation: STAT3, HNF1, IL6ST, GNAS
Chromatin modifiersBAP1, ARID1A/B, IDH1/2, SMACA4, KMT2D