Copyright ©2011 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Gastrointest Pathophysiol. Feb 15, 2011; 2(1): 1-14
Published online Feb 15, 2011. doi: 10.4291/wjgp.v2.i1.1
Figure 1
Figure 1 Molecular targets of curcumin in gastrointestinal diseases. These include AID, activation-induced cytidine deaminase; Akt; AP-1: activated protein-1; α-SMA: alpha smooth muscle actin; caspase-3; ATM/Chk1; Ca2+/calmodulin; CD11b; C/EBPalpha: CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha; COX-2: cyclooxygenase-2; CTGF: connective tissue growth factor; CXCR1: chemokine receptor 1; CXCR2: chemokine receptor 2; cyclin D1; cyclin E; CYP1A1: cytochrome P-450 A1; CYP1B1: cytochrome P-450 B1; EGFR: epidermal growth factor receptor; HIF-1: hypoxia-inducible factor-1; HO-1: heme oxygenase 1; HSP70: heat shock protein 70; IGF-1R: insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor; IGFBP-5: insulin-like growth factor binding protein-5; IL-1β/8/10: interleukin-1beta/8/10; iNOS: inducible nitric oxide synthase; JNK: C-jun N-terminal kinase; MAPK/ERK: mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular receptor kinase; MCP-1: monocyte chemoattractant protein 1; miR-21, -22, 200: microRNA-21, -22, -200; MMP-2/9: matrix metalloproteinase-2/9; mTOR: mammalian target of rapamycin; MyD88: myeloid differentiation primary response gene (88); NF-κB: nuclear factor-kappa B; Notch-1; p38 MAPK: p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase; PAK1: p21-activated kinase 1; PGE2: prostaglandin E2; P-gp: P-glycoprotein; PPARγ: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma; procollagen type I; ROS: reactive oxygen species; RTKN: rhotekin; Sp1, -3, -4; STAT3: signal transducers and activators of transcription 3; surviving/BIRC5; TGF-β1: transforming growth factor-beta1; TIMPs: tissue inhibitors of MMPs; TLR-4: toll-like receptor-4; TRPV-1: transient potential vanilloid receptor-1; uPA: urokinase-type plasminogen activator; VCAM-1: vascular cell adhesion molecule-1; WT-1: Wilms’ tumor gene 1.