Systematic Reviews
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2022.
World J Gastrointest Surg. Jul 27, 2022; 14(7): 696-705
Published online Jul 27, 2022. doi: 10.4240/wjgs.v14.i7.696
Table 1 Characteristics of case reports of skeletal muscle metastasis in colorectal adenocarcinoma
Site of primary tumour
Presenting symptom
Surgery of primary tumour
Histology of primary
Site of skeletal metastasis and treatment
Non-skeletal metastases
Time interval in mo
1Hasegawa et al[14], 200060/MTransverse colonNot describedTransverse colon resection and lymph node dissection + FOLFOXAdenocarcinomaRight extensor carpi ulnaris muscle; a major part of the right extensor carpi ulnaris and the extensor digiti minimi muscle were resected, warranting a sufficient margin of 5 cm of normal tissue from the tumourMultiple hepatic metastases detected 14 mo after primary resection and was resected24Alive
2Buemi et al[3], 201969/FRight colonPain when mobilizing left leg + elevated CEA of 7.7 ng/mLRight hemicolectomypT3N0M0 (0/44 lymph nodes)Left gluteus muscle; lesion was resected en bloc7Alive; 6 yr after colectomy and 65 mo after resection of the muscular metastasis she was tumour free with normal CEA level
3Yi et al[17], 201567/MCaecumSwelling and painRight hemicolectomy and subsequent chemotherapy with a regimen containing oxaliplatinPoorly differentiatedRight thenar musclesLiver, right kidney, right abdominal wall, left axillary and right subclavicular lymph nodes, skin of right thigh; treatment was given with palliative systemic chemotherapy (FOLFIRI)SynchronousDead (9 mo after diagnosis)
4Araki et al[18], 199466/MAscending colonPainful lumpRight hemicolectomyRight teres major; excision of the mass was performed6Dead (31 mo after surgery)
5Manafi-Farid et al[19], 201923/MRectumIncidentally detected in FDG-PET studiesProctocolectomy preceded by neoadjuvant chemotherapy and followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, including the FOLFOX regimenpT3N1Multiple: Deltoid, external oblique, biceps, tongue; excisional biopsy of the deltoid muscle lesion proved to be metastatic adenocarcinoma; commenced chemotherapy (FOLFIRI)Lung/adrenal gland/scalp24Alive
6Torosian et al[20], 198769/MTransverse colonExtended right colectomyLeft thigh; en bloc resection was performed60Not specified
7Okada et al[21], 200970/MRectumPainful lump Rectal resectionRight thigh; resection and chemotherapy were givenLung12Alive; the resection of SMM made a positive contribution to his quality of life
8Chang et al[22], 199462/MDescending colonPainful lumpLeft tibialis anterior; excision of the mass was performedSynchronousNot specified
9Yoshikawa et al[23], 199954/MSigmoid colonSevere buttocks painPartial sigmoid colectomyRight buttocks; en bloc resection performedMultiple metastases24Died after 8 mo from multiple metastases
10Guo et al[16], 202143/MAscending colonRight thigh mass 4 cm × 4 cm with intolerable painLaparoscopic extended right hemicolectomy and four cycles of chemotherapy with CapeOXPT4N2bM0; poorly differentiated adenocarcinomaRight thigh; a complete resection was suggested but was refused by the patient; unresponsive to FOLFIRI; switched to bevacizumab, irinotecan, and capecitabineBony metastasis and multiple lymph node metastases around the abdominal aorta5Deteriorated and died 9 mo after primary resection
11Tatsuta et al[24], 202283/MAscending colonPain in the back of his neckCurative resectionAdenocarcinomaCervical (neck muscle); he was prescribed palliative radiation therapy because of his poor performance statusNone11Died 2 mo after diagnosis of muscle metastasis
12Iusco et al[25], 200573/FAscending colonPainful lump Right hemicolectomyDukes CLeft calf; the mass was excised and received adjuvant radiotherapyNone24Alive; no sign of recurrence at a 2-yr follow-up
13Landriscina et al[9], 201371/FRight colon Detected on PET/CT scanRight hemicolectomy with subsequent systemic neoadjuvant chemotherapy for liver metastasis followed by radical hepatectomyPoorly differentiated adenocarcinomaDeltoid, sternocleidomastoid and other multiple sites; chemotherapy with FOLFOX was administered for 3 cycles but discontinued due to traumatic femur fractureLiver/lung23Disease progression and death
14Hattori et al[26], 200864/FRectumAsymptomatic; increased CEA; discovered by FDG-PETAbdominoperineal rectal resectionModerately differentiated adenocarcinomaRight thoracic paraspinal muscles; en bloc excision was performed including the paraspinal musclesSolitary lung metastasis, which was resected 3 yr previously by lobectomy with subsequent immunochemotherapy96Alive
15Choi et al[27], 200883/FRectumPainful lump Low anterior resection and right liver lobectomy T2N1M1Semimembranous muscle of right thighSolitary pulmonary nodule in left lobe48Died of heart failure on second postoperative day
16Doroudinia et al[28], 201948/MRectumSubcutaneous lumpAbdominoperineal rectal resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy and chemotherapyHigh grade mucinous adenocarcinomaRight proximal thigh; the patient became a candidate for tumour excision (metastasectomy) followed by additional course of chemotherapy.None38Not specified
17Tunio et al[29], 201328/MTransverse colon Abdominal pain and hard nodule at anterior abdominal wallExtended right hemicolectomy; radiotherapy; FOLFOX4 Mucinous moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma T4N2bM0Rectus abdominis muscle and right gluteus maximus; underwent palliative radiotherapy followed by systemic chemotherapyNone11Alive at time of publication with progressive disease
18Simeunovic et al[30], 201455/FRectumLower back pain and left hip pain as first manifestation of the primary tumourRadiotherapy; chemotherapy with FOLFOXPoorly differentiated adenocarcinomaLeft adductor muscleNoneSynchronousNot specified
19Prabhu et al[31], 201769/MRectumSevere low back acheNeoadjuvant; abdominoperineal resection; capecitabineAdenocarcinoma with signet ring cell features T3N2; Dukes C1Multiple skeletal muscles: left sartorious, left vastus lateralis, left infraspinatus, left levator scapulae, left tenth Intercostal muscle, right subscapularis muscleNone4Not specified
20Tai et al[32], 201481/MCaecumSevere right shoulder painPalliative chemotherapy; palliative right hemicolectomyPoorly differentiated adenocarcinomaRight supraspinatus muscleRight lobe of lungSynchronousPatient transitioned to hospice
21Farraj et al[33], 202152/FRectumNoted with preoperative stagingLow anterior resection; adjuvant combination of oxaliplatin, capecitabine, and pelvic external beam radiation therapyModerately differentiated adenocarcinoma T2N1aLeft psoas muscleNoneSynchronousPatient is currently maintained on platinum doublet chemotherapy with control of metastatic disease
22Salar et al[34], 201267/FRectumDeep pelvic and left buttock painEUA; submucosal polypectomyTubullovillous adenomatous polyp with high grade dysplasiaLeft piriformis muscleNone18Patient began cycles of chemoradiotherapy with plans for further surgical resection
23Homan et al[35], 200072/FDescending colonSurgical resection; FOLFOXThighNA
24Takada et al[36], 201171/MSigmoid colon Radiotherapy; FOLFOX; resection “Hartmann”Stage III adenocarcinomaLeft iliopsoas muscle; received radiotherapy and 15 courses of FOLFOX + bevacizumab for decreasing large and unresectable tumour; then resection was performedGI metastasis605 mo after resection of muscle metastasis, there was no recurrence
25Naik et al[37], 200556/MAscending colonA lumpResection; chemotherapy FOLFOX; radiotherapyMucin secreting adenocarcinomaRectus abdominis muscle; resection was performedNA60Not specified
26Burgueño Montañés and López Roger[38], 200260/MRectosigmoidExophthalmosRadiotherapy; FOLFOXLateral rectus muscleNot specified
27García-Fernández et al[39], 201232/MColonPalpebral oedema, conjunctival chemosis, severe exophthalmos, complete ptosis in left eye and limitation in eye movement mainly in abduction and supraversionResistant to chemotherapyStage IVSuperior rectus elevator muscle of upper eyelid complex and external rectus muscleDue to the patient generally feeling unwell, radiotherapy was not considered, and an intravenous bolus of corticoids was given, without response, resulting in the death of the patient
28Lampenfeld et al[40], 199075/FRectumProgressive growth of left buttock massExcision of massAdenocarcinomaLeft gluteus maximus and medius24
29Laurence and Murray[41], 1970; Case 170/FCaecumPainful mass in posteroexternal aspect of right calf and leg oedemaRight hemicolectomy Ulcerated villous adenocarcinomaRight calf; en bloc resection was performedGeneralized metastasis24Died due to generalized metastasis
30Laurence and Murray[41], 1970; Case 251/MTransverse colonRight colectomyRight forearm; en bloc resection was performedGeneralized metastasisSynchronousDied due to generalized metastasis