Copyright ©The Author(s) 2016.
World J Gastrointest Surg. Mar 27, 2016; 8(3): 179-192
Published online Mar 27, 2016. doi: 10.4240/wjgs.v8.i3.179
Figure 1
Figure 1 Changes in successive editions of the tumor node metastasis staging system. Top 3 rows: Size of deposit within definite lymph node. Under the 5th edition of the TNM staging system (TNM5)[7], the volume of tumour cells is immaterial, but from the 6th edition (TNM6) onwards[6], tumour burden is sub-classified by size; bottom 6 rows: Extra-mural deposits. TNM5 uses a 3 mm threshold; above this, the deposit is regarded as a lymph node metastases, below this, the deposit is regarded as a discontinuous extension of the main tumour. TNM6 relies on assessment of contour; smooth deposits are counted as nodes, whereas irregular contours are considered vascular invasion and upstaged in the T category. TNM7 leaves the decision to the judgement of pathologist with a wide range of outcomes.
Figure 2
Figure 2 Anatomical extent of surgery. Schematic representation of the 3 anatomical boundaries of colorectal surgery.