Retrospective Study
Copyright ©The Author(s) 2019.
World J Gastrointest Oncol. May 15, 2019; 11(5): 393-403
Published online May 15, 2019. doi: 10.4251/wjgo.v11.i5.393
Table 2 Clavien–Dindo classification of surgical complications
IAny deviation from the normal postoperative course without the need for pharmacological treatment or surgical, endoscopic and radiologic interventions. Allowed therapeutic regimens are drugs including antiemetics, antipyretics, analgesics and diuretics, and electrolytes and physiotherapy. This grade also includes wound infections opened at the bedside.
IIRequiring pharmacological treatment with drugs other than those allowed for grade I complications. Blood transfusions and total parenteral nutrition are also included.
IIIRequiring surgical, endoscopic or radiological intervention
IIIaIntervention not under general anesthesia
IIIbIntervention under general anesthesia
IVLife-threatening complication (including CNS complications)1 requiring IC/ICU management
IVaSingle organ dysfunction (including dialysis)
IVbMultiple organ dysfunction
VDeath as a result of complications