Brief Article
Copyright ©2013 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Gastrointest Endosc. Jul 16, 2013; 5(7): 332-339
Published online Jul 16, 2013. doi: 10.4253/wjge.v5.i7.332
Table 1 Studies reporting placement of covered metal stent in benign biliary strictures and bile leaks
Ref.No. of patients/No. stentsBBS or bile leaksEtiologyStent typeTime to removalResults (success rate )Complications
Benign biliary strictures
Deviere et al[18]20/20BBSCPWallstent FCSEMSNA190%Epithelial hyperplasia (2)
Cantù et al[19]14/14BBSCPpCSEMS21 mo (median)37.5% at 30-mo fuCholestasis (7), cholangitis (5), duodenal migration (2), cholecystitis (1)
Kuo et al[20]3/4BBSOLTFCSEMS32 d (median)100%Septicemia (1), misplacement (1)
Kahaleh et al[2]79/79BBSCP, OLT, BC, INF, surgicalpCSEMS4 mo (median)90% ITT 75%Migrations (11)
Cahen et al[21]6/6BBSCPFCSEMS3-6 mo (median)66%Migration (2), recurrent stricture (1)
Mahajan[3]44/44BBSCP, gallstone related, OLT, AP, PSCFCSEMS3.3 mo (median)s83% 77% ITT (3 patients died)Post ERCP pancreatitis (1), mucousal ulceration and bleeding (1)
Garcia-Cano[22]20/20BBSBiliary fistula, perforation of papilla, to remove uncovered stents, benign strictures, CBD stonesWallstent FCSEMS132 d (median)70%Pancreatitis (3)
Sauer et al[23]19/19BBS and bile leaksLiver transplantWallflex11.7 wk (mean)79%Proximal migration (1), distal migration (5), occlusion (1), de novo stricture (2)
Bile leaks
Wang et al[24]13Complex bile leaksChole and OLTViabil FCSEMS103 d85% ITTMucousal ulcerations (4), de novo choledocholithiasis/ luminal debris (10), strictures (2)
Sandha et al[8]97High grade leaksCholeFCSEMS42 d100%Post ERCP pancreatitis (2), duodenal perforation (1)
Kahaleh et al[1]16/16Bile leaksChole, OLTWallstent FCSEMS3 mo93%Stent migration (2)
Sauer et al[23]19/19BBS and bile leaksLiver transplantWallflex11.7 wk (mean)79%Proximal migration (1), distal migration (5), occlusion (1), de novo stricture (2)
Table 2 Patient characteristics and demographics
Case No.Age, yrSexEtiologyLocationFCSEMS (mm), typeComplicationsDuration of stenting (d)Follow-up after removal (d)Results
Benign biliary strictures
147MBiliary anastomosis/WhippleCholedocho-duodenal anastomosis10 mm × 0 mm ViabilNone891435Patent
277FCholecystectomyDistal CBD10 mm × 10 cm wallstentNone921210Patent
336FCholelithiasisDistal CBD10 mm × 6 cm ViabilNone371138Patent
451FCholelithiasisDistal CBD10 mm × 6 cm ViabilNone1611131Patent
573MCholecystectomyRight intrahepatic duct10 mm × 10 cm ViabilSolid debris in lumen1601112Patent
676FCholecystectomyH-J anastomosis8 mm × 6 cm ViabilNone2955Patent
727FCholecystectomyH-J anastomosis10 mm × 4 cm ViabilNone42176Patent
847FCompression by hepatic arteryCHD80 mm × 8 cm wallstentNone35302Patent
936FCholecystectomyCBD10 mm × 80 mm ViabilMigration27463Not patent
1045FChronic pancreatitis/ cholecystectomyDistal CBD10 mm × 10 cm ViabilNone6336Patent
1142FPancretitis and pancreatic head necrosisDistal CBD10 mm × 6 cm wallstentRecurrent cholangitis (n = 2), migration199122Patent
1235MCholecystectomyDistal CBD10 mm × 8 cm ViabilAbd pain following day of stent placement; repeat ERCP showed residual bile duct stones5741Patent
Bile leaks
1375FCholecystectomyBile leak (high grade); complex10 mm × 80 mm ViabilNone991364Sealed
1449FCholecystectomyBile Leak (high grade)10 mm × 10 cm ViabilNone921294Sealed
1530FCholecystectomyBile leak (low grade); complex10 mm × 80 mm ViabilOccluded stent after lost to follow-up (eight and a half months)2511007Sealed
1664MCholecystectomyBile leak (high grade)8 mm × 8 cm ViabilNone62575Sealed
1750MCholecystectomyBile leak (low grade)10 mm × 80 mm ViabilHepatic abscess and Sepsis4828Sealed