Copyright ©The Author(s) 2022.
World J Gastrointest Endosc. Jun 16, 2022; 14(6): 354-366
Published online Jun 16, 2022. doi: 10.4253/wjge.v14.i6.354
Table 1 Comparison of the main studies reporting data of endoscopic ultrasound guided treatments for gastric varices
Study design
Number of patients
Technical success
Clinical success
Adverse events
Romero-Castro et al[30], 2013Retrospective analysis of a prospectively maintained database30 total patients, 11 ECA, 19 CYA27/30 (90%)18/19 (96.7%) CYA; 10/11 (90.9%) ECA40% total AEs; CYA 11/19 (57.9%); ECA 1/11 (9.1%)
Lôbo et al[17], 2019Randomized Controlled Trial32 total patients; 16 ECA + CYA, 16 CYA--Early AEs: 8 (50%) ECA + CYA; 10 (62.5%) CYA. Pulmonary embolism: 4 (25%) ECA + CYA; 8 (50%) CYA
Robles-Medranda et al[29], 2019Randomized Controlled Trial60 total patients, 30 ECA + CYA; 30 ECA60/60 (100%) in both groupsECA + CYA 30/30 (100%), ECA 27/30 (90%)ECA + CYA 2/30 (6.7%); ECA 1/30 (3.3%)
Bazarbashi et al[16], 2020Prospective Study40 total patients; 10 ECA, 30 CYA10/10 (100%) ECA; 29/30 (96.7%) CYA10/10 (100%) ECA; 26/30 (87%) CYA10% ECA; 20% CYA
Table 2 Case reports on endoscopic ultrasound-guided treatment of pseudoaneurysms
Technical success (%)
Adverse events
Needle size
Robb et al[61], 2012Case Report100NoneNone after 5 mo follow-up19GPsuedoaneurysm embolization
Gamanagatti et al[62], 2015Case Report100NoneRecurrence; asymptomatic22GThrombin injection 300-500 units
Mann et al[27], 2017Case Report100Not reportedNone after 2 wk follow-up19G5 coils of 10 mm size were placed, 3000 units of thrombin injected
Jhajharia et al[63], 2018Case Report100Not reportedNone in all three patientsNot reported1000 units of thrombin
Gunjan et al[63], 2018Case Report100Not reportedNone after 9 mo follow-up19G3 mL of undiluted N-butyl-cyanoacrylate
Sharma et al[65], 2019Case Report100NoneFull obliteration on 2-wk follow-up19GFive 10 mm coils placed, 6 mL of 3000 units of thrombin injected in six boluses of 500 units each
Table 3 Table summarizing technical features, success, and complications of studies on portal vein pressure gradient measurement
Technical success (%)
Adverse events
Post-procedural necropsy
Gauge needle used
Lai et al[51], 2004Comparative Study - Animal Model90Subserosal hematoma in one porcine subjectAfter 4 d22
Giday et al[52], 2007Comparative Study - Animal Model100NoneDay 0 and after 2 wk19
Buscaglia et al[66], 2008Comparative Study - Animal Model100NonePostprocedural19
Huang et al[67], 2016Comparative Study - Animal Model100NoneNot reported25
Schulman et al[68], 2016Comparative Study - Animal Model100NonePostprocedural25
Garg and Rustagi[48], 2017Human Pilot Study100NoneNot reported25
Garg and Rustagi[48], 2017Human Pilot Study100NoneOccured on day 0, 1 and 725
Huang et al[69], 2017Human Pilot Study100NoneNot reported25
Zhang et al[46], 2021Prospective Study91.70NoneNot reported22
Table 4 Table summarizing studies and case reports of portal vein thrombus biopsy
Technical success (%)
Adverse events
Upstaging post EUS-FNA
Cytological analysis
Gimeno Garcia et al[54], 2018Multicenter Study87.50None85.70%Used to determine final diagnosis
Rustagi et al[70], 2017Prospective Study100None37.50%Malignant cytology in 12 patients out of 17 (70.6%; 10 positive, 2 suspicious)
Kayar et al[53], 2015Case Report100NoneNot reportedInvasion of PV by HCC
Moreno et al[71], 2014Case Report100NoneNot reportedInvasion of PV by HCC
Michael et al[72], 2011Case Report100NoneNot reportedMalignant cells consistent with poorly differentiated HCC