Copyright ©The Author(s) 2019.
World J Gastrointest Endosc. Feb 16, 2019; 11(2): 68-83
Published online Feb 16, 2019. doi: 10.4253/wjge.v11.i2.68
Table 1 Causes of upper gastrointestinal bleeding
Common causesOther causes
Peptic ulcer disease (gastric or duodenal)Hemosuccus pancreaticus
Gastric or esophageal varicesCameron lesions
Erosive esophagitisHemobilia
Upper gastrointestinal tumorsAortoenteric fistula
Upper gastrointestinal angioectasiasAnastomotic bleeding
Mallory-Weiss tearArteriovenous malformation
Gastric or duodenal erosionsAcute esophageal necrosis
Dieulafoy lesionAtrial-esophageal fistula
Gastric antral vascular ectasia
Table 2 Causes of acute small bowel and lower gastrointestinal bleeding by category
AnatomicDiverticulosis, including Meckel’s diverticulum
NSAID-induced enterocolopathy
Antiplatelet or anticoagulant-induced enterocolopathy
Stercoral ulceration (solitary rectal ulcer syndrome)
Anal fissure
VascularIschemic colitis
Angiodysplasias (Angioectasias)
Colorectal varices
Postpolypectomy bleeding
Radiation telangiectasia or proctitis
Dieulafoy’s lesion
NeoplasticColorectal polyps
Colorectal and anal cancers
Small bowel tumors, including gastrointestinal stromal tumor
Metastatic or direct invasion from other cancer
InflammatoryInflammatory bowel disease
Infectious colitis