This article is an open-access article which was selected by an in-house editor and fully peer-reviewed by external reviewers. It is distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/
1Study did not provide baseline characteristics for their entire population, but instead provided baseline demographics in accordance with IL-28 genotype (only baseline characteristics for rs12979860 are reported in the review, as these were representative for the study population);
2253 was reported to be enrolled, however when adding the males and female patients, it sums to 252;
3Only 226 out of 280 patients had serum available for iP-10 testing;
4Median (25-75 percentiles);
651 patients from clinical trials had Spanish nationality;
995% of the original DITTO patient population were Caucasian. BMI: Body mass index.
Table 3 Hepatitis C virus-RNA and patient liver enzyme status for the 8 included studies
1Lagging et al provided baseline demographics in accordance with IL-28 genotype (only baseline characteristics for rs12979860 are reported in the review, as these were representative for the study population);
2Median (25-75 percentiles);
5Recalculated into log IU/mL. HCV-RNA is shown as number of patients with high or low viral load or as the mean or median for the entire population. Depending of the presentation in the original article, levels of ALT, AST or both are shown. HCV: Hepatitis C virus; ALT: Alanine transaminase; AST: Aspartate transaminase.
Table 4 Genotype and liver fibrosis stage for the 8 included studies
1Baseline information for the sub analysis of IL28 12979860. Two hundred and fifty-two patients are reported to be enrolled, however adding the genotypes yields 253 patients. Likevise biopsies from 228 patients are described, however when adding the Ishak scores only yields 216 patients;
2Biopsies only available for 142 patients;
3Histology available for 44 patients;
4Lagging et al provided baseline demographics in accordance with IL-28 genotype (only baseline characteristics for rs12979860 are reported in the review, as these were representative for the study population). A box stretching over two - or more genotypes or fibrosis stage, indicates that the number refers to the combined group.
Table 5 Overview of the treatment regimens for pegylated interferon in combination with ribavirin, for the 8 studies included, in relation to dose and duration
1After 6 wk, patients were randomized to differentiated treatment regimes;
2No further information on ribavirin treatment was provided;
3No further information on the subtype of peg-IFN was provided. Apolinario et al feature patients from both an outpatient clinic as well as patients from two multicenter trials receiving different treatment regimens, illustrated by the segregation in the genotype column. peg-IFN: Pegylated interferon.
Table 6 Overview of the marker distribution, in the four studied that supplied information on interleukin 28B single nucleotide polymorphism
Genotype column indicates specific genotype, and total number of patients with the specific genotype. Each marker column is divided into allelic distribution for the IL28B SNP genotype. SNP: Single nucleotide polymorphism.
Table 7 Overview of rapid virological response in the 3 studies providing information on baseline inducible protein-10’s, and hepatitis C virus RNA levels at week 4
IP-10 measurement method
Baseline IP-10 concentration, grouped by rapid virological response (pg/mL)
ELISA (Quantikine, R andD systems, Minneapolis, MN, United States )
462 (± 282.6)
840.4 (± 490.6)
P < 0.01 (mean ± SD)
1Entire patina population was 280, genotype 4 removed from the analyses, and IP-10 results was available for 226 patients Note that M. Derbala et al did not provide written specification on IP-10 levels for SVR compared to non-SVR, and only supplied a graphic depiction, which could not be interpreted to adequate results;
2SVR for the entire population.
aP = 0.02. Only the results of statistical tests with a P value < 0.01 were considered of interest, because of the multiple comparisons between subjects with and without SVR. SVR: Sustained viral response; IP-10: Inducible protein-10.
Citation: Neesgaard B, Ruhwald M, Weis N. Inducible protein-10 as a predictive marker of antiviral hepatitis C treatment: A systematic review. World J Hepatol 2017; 9(14): 677-688