Topic Highlight
Copyright ©2011 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Hepatol. May 27, 2011; 3(5): 121-124
Published online May 27, 2011. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v3.i5.121
Table 1 International Club of Ascites criteria for the diagnosis of hepatorenal syndrome
1Presence of cirrhosis and ascites
2Serum creatinine > 1.5 mg/dL (or 133 mmol/L)
3No improvement of serum creatinine (decrease equal to or less than 1.5 mg/dL) after at least 48 h of discontinuing diuretics
4Withdrawal and volume expansion with albumin (recommended dose: 1 g/kg per day up to a maximum of 100 g of albumin/d)
5Absence of shock
6No current or recent treatment with nephrotoxic drugs
7Absence of parenchymal kidney disease as indicated by proteinuria > 500 mg/d, microhematuria (> 50 RBCs/high power field), and/or abnormal renal ultrasound scanning
Table 2 Urinalysis findings in various etiologies of acute kidney injury
AKI typeUAUrine sodium (mEq/L)FENABUN:Creatinine ratio
Pre-renalNormal or hyaline casts< 20< 1≥ 20:1
Intrinsic renal
ATNMuddy brown casts> 40≥ 1
GNDysmorphic RBC and RBC casts< 20< 1
AINWBC casts and eosinophils> 20≥ 1
Post-renalNormal or hematuria>20Variable≥ 20:1