Copyright ©2011 Baishideng Publishing Group Co.
World J Hepatol. Dec 27, 2011; 3(12): 300-307
Published online Dec 27, 2011. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v3.i12.300
Table 1 Prevalence of osteopenia and osteoporosis in chronic liver disease of various etiologies
Ref.nEtiologyPrevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosisPathogenic mechanisms/ associated factors
Goral et al[14], 201055Child A-B-C cirrhosisOsteoporosis 37%Increased TNFα and IL-6 levels
Mixed etiologyDecreased IGF-1 levels
Wariaghli et al[53], 201064CirrhosisOsteoporosis 45.3%Female sex
Mixed etiologyCholestasis
Lower weight and height
Loria et al[67], 201035CirrhosisOsteoporosis 14%Not specified
Viral and alcoholicOsteopenia 26%
George et al[34], 201072CirrhosisLow BMD 68%Low levels of IGF-1
Viral and alcoholic
Sokhi et al[66], 2004104CirrhosisOsteoporosis 11.5%Child B-C stage and female
Mixed etiologyOsteopenia 34.6%female
Gallego-Rojo et al[12], 199832Viral cirrhosisOsteoporosis 53%Child stage
IGF-1 serum levels
Auletta et al[72], 200530Chronic viral hepatitisOsteoporosis 20%Chronic hepatopathy per se
Osteopenia 44%
Diamond et al[11], 198922HemochromatosisOsteoporosis 45%Hypogonadism
Low free testosterone levels
Sinigaglia et al[22], 199732HemochromatosisOsteoporosis 28%Cirrhosis and iron overload
Mounach et al[73], 200833Primary biliary cirrhosisOsteoporosis 51.5%Low BMI
Menopausal status
Duration of liver disease
Vitamin D deficiency
Lindor et al[20], 199588Primary biliary cirrhosisOsteoporosis 35%not specified
Guañabens et al[74], 199020Primary biliary cirrhosisOsteoporosis 35%Duration of liver disease
Post menopause
Malabsorption of calcium
Angulo et al[10], 199881Primary sclerosing cholangitisOsteoporosis 17%Stage of liver disease
Associated advanced inflammatory bowel disease
Malik et al[23], 200957AlcoholicLow BMD (z-score ≤ -2.0) 17.5%25-hydroxy-vitamin D deficiency
Kim et al[24], 200318AlcoholicOsteoporosis 22%Cumulative alcohol intake
Osteopenia 50%
Gonzalez-Calvín et al[25], 199339AlcoholicOsteopenia 23%Cumulative alcohol intake
Impairment of osteoblastic activity by ethanol