Copyright ©The Author(s) 2017.
World J Hepatol. Jun 18, 2017; 9(17): 757-770
Published online Jun 18, 2017. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v9.i17.757
Table 3 Commonly used plants on liver disorders and their effect mechanisms
Scientific nameEffect/mechanism on liverEffect/mechanısm on immun systemRef.
Curcuma longa L.Acute liver damage by chemicals, e.g., ethanol, CCl4, DimethylnitrosaminesImmunostimulant, immunomodulatory[18,22-24]
The extract of the rhizome C. longa increased both Th1 (IL-2 and IFN gamma) and Th2 (IL-10) cytokines indicating its dual immune functions. NR-INF-02 significantly increased the IL-2 and IFN gamma levels in Con A stimulated splenic lymphocytes. The above results indicated that NR-INF-02 showed a specific immunity response by stimulating both Th1 and Th2 cells
Polysaccharide fraction of the rhizome showed potent immunostimulatory activity towards proliferation of splenocytes cell number and IL-10 secretion. Polysaccharides might be contributing to this proliferative and cytokine release property in murine splenocytes
Hot water extracts of the rhizome showed that the high polarity fraction exhibited stimulatory effects on PBMC. The cytokine productions (TGF-beta, TNF-alpha, GM-CSF, IL-1alpha, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-13, etc.) have been modulated by a polysaccharide-enriched fraction.The proportion of CD14 positive stained PBMC was increased by the fraction
Anti-HIV-1 and HIV-2
Foeniculum vulgare Mill.Oxidative stress of the liver bacterial and viral infections anti-inflammatory, acute hepatotoxicityImmunomodulatory[18,25]
Antimicrobial, antifungal
Glycyrrhiza glabra L.Cirrhosis fibrosis chronic viral hepatitis B and CImmunomodulatory[18,26,27]
Leukocyte count and phagocytic index (carbon clearance) was increased significantly with the treatment of water extract of G. glabra root. Zinc (45 mg/kg) in combination with ALE (0.75 g/kg) showed highly significant increase of leukocyte count and phagocytic index
Silybum marianum (L.) Gaertn.Oxidative stress inflammation and fibrosis alcohol-induced cirrhosis mushroom poisoning viral hepatitisImmunomodulatory[18,19]
Flavonoids from S. marianum normalize immunoregulatory defects via restoration of the cellular thiol status. T-cell activation (CD69), along with a significant decrease in TNF