Copyright ©The Author(s) 2015.
World J Hepatol. Mar 27, 2015; 7(3): 559-565
Published online Mar 27, 2015. doi: 10.4254/wjh.v7.i3.559
Table 1 Summary of clinical trials using probiotics to treat nonalcoholic fatty liver disease patients
Ref.Sample size and underlying hepatic disorderDesignInterventionDurationResults after treatment
Loguercio et al[12]12 chronic HCV infection 10 alcoholic cirrhosis 10 NASH (biopsy-proven)Prospective, single-center, nonrandomized, noncontrolled pilot studyLactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus. rhamnosus, Lactobacillus. plantarum, Lactobacillus. salivarius, Lactobacillus. bulgaricus, Lactobacillus. casei, Bifidobacterium. lactis and Bifidobacterium. breveassociated plus FOS, vitamins and minerals2 moNASH patients: decreased serum ALT, GGT, MDA, 4-HNE and TNF-α
Loguercio et al[13]22 NAFLD (biopsy-proven) 20 alcoholic cirrhosis 20 chronic HCV infection 16 liver cirrhosis (without any other information)Prospective, single-center, nonrandomized, noncontrolledVSL#3 - 900 billion/2 × d3 moNAFLD and alcoholic cirrhosis groups, improved MDA, 4-HNE. All groups improved S-NO plasma levels
Solga et al[14]Open label pilot trialVSL ≠3 - 450 billion/d4 moAll increase steatosis. No significant changes in metabolic panel, protime, glycosylated hemoglobin, TNF-α, IL-6 and 1β, and interferon-γ
Vajro et al[15]20 NAFLD children (10/10) (US + increased aminotransferases)Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialLactobacillus rhamnosus GG (12 billion CFU/d) vs placebo8 wkImprovement of ALT antipeptidoglycan-polysaccharide antibodies levels. No alterations in BMI z score, visceral fat, TNF-α levels and in US bright liver parameters
Aller et al[16]28 (14/14) NAFLD (biopsy-proven)Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialL. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophiles (500 million CFU/d) vs placebo3 moImprovement of AST, ALT and GGT levels No changes in anthropometric parameters and cardiovascular risk factors
Malaguarnera et al[17]66 (34/32) NAFLD (biopsy-proven)Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialBifidobacterium longum + FOS vs placebo24 wkImprovement of TNF-α, CRP, AST, HOMA-IR and endotoxin levels, steatosis, and the NASH activity index
Wong et al[18]20 (10/10) NAFLD (biopsy-proven)Randomized, double-blindLepicol probiotic formula vs nothing6 moImprovement of AST levels and IHTG No differences in BMI, waist circumference, glucose and lipid levels
Eslamparast et al[19]52 NAFLD (US, liver enzymes and fibroScan)Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trialSynbiotic (200 million of 7 strain + FOS + probiotic cultures [magnesium stearate (source: mineral and vegetable) + vegetable capsule (hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose vs placebo28 wkImprovement of ALT, AST, GGT, CRP, TNF-α and total nuclear factor k-B levels, and fibrosis score